Foreigners can't live without tea rhubarb in the dynasty?

2020-01-01 | Elephant Guild original |

January 1840, Governor of Guangdong and Guangxi, Lin Zexu, issued the "Book of the King of England" to Queen Victoria of Britain, asking the British why they wanted opium into China.

Lin Zexu believes that the British import of opium into China is a grave revenge. What China exports to foreign countries, which can be eaten, used, and resold, is beneficial to foreign countries. "If tea rhubarb, foreign countries cannot be without a day."Give them, "Why do people live?"

· 林则徐出巡图

This national script is quite elegant and does not directly point to Ying Yi's Xia San Road. However, its subtext is nothing more than tea and rhubarb, and Yi people will be constipated and die.

The successor to Lin Zexu, the governor of the two provinces, Qi Shan, put it bluntly: "The foreign land is firm and the weather is hot. The people use cattle and mutton as rations every day, which is difficult to digest. If there is no rhubarb, the stool is not smooth.People will die alive. Therefore, after each meal, rhubarb tea is used as a bowel magic drug. "

Jiangnan Zhou Shi of Jiangnan Province also thinks that "foreign tea leaves and rhubarb in mainland China will not be eaten for several months, and they may suffer from embarrassment, and they may not even talk."

After the war, after Yimin of Guangzhou Sanyuanli resisted Britain, he even questioned Yingyi: "I have teas and rhubarb drugs, all of which are dog foods. If I do n’t give them,Where are your lives? "

Sanyuanli Anti-British Portrait

Before and after the Opium War, such opinions are endless. The ocher system is the consensus of the entire Qing Dynasty. Many people believe that if the yi people rely on tea rhubarb to excrete and renew their lives, then if the ocher export is controlled, it will make yiLife is not as good as death; if you use the ocher wonderfully, you can make Yiren bow down without any effort.

Where did this weird consensus come from?

Qing Russia Trade War

The relationship between Yiren and Rhubarb starts from the Sino-Russian trade war surrounding the Chaktu market during the Qianlong period.

Five years of Yongzheng 1727, China and Russia signed the "Chaktuk Boundary Covenant." This agreement stipulated the border between the two sides in Mongolia. At the same time, the Qing Dynasty allowed Tsarist Russia to open trade in the border town of Chucktu. RussiaCaravans are allowed to travel to Beijing every three years.

· 《恰克图界约》文本,谈判双方(清方包括蒙古人)共出具了满语、汉语、蒙语、俄语和拉丁语五种语言的文本。图中为满语版本

According to the treaty, the Russian royal family, who is keen on trade, personally planned the architectural style and size of the Kaktu market. The Chinese side did not actively build the market, but when the keen Chinese businessmen discovered the business opportunity, they immediately raised funds and built it next to the Russian Trade City."Sale City".

· 恰克图市场旧照

The main products of the Kaktu market are Russian fur and Chinese tea, silk, rhubarb, etc. The tea trade accounts for the vast majority. Russia has also set up a "Cak"Kiakhta Rhubarb Comission" is used to deal with rhubarb trading affairs. The Chaktu Market and Trade Day has reached a new high and is booming.

Chinese and Russian businessmen in Chucktu get along very well. Officials and businessmen on both sides will meet and greet each other during the Chinese New Year. However, the atmosphere of joy is always covered in haze-that is, cases of cross-border escapes from time to time.

Chaktow is on the Sino-Russian border, but this border line was originally the border between Russia and the Khalkha tribes. In the 27th year of Kangxi 1688, the Mongolian Jungar Ministry united with RussiaAfter defeating Kharkha, Kharkha Mongolia was annexed to the Qing Dynasty, and a large area of ​​land originally belonging to Kharkha Mongolia also belonged to the Qing Dynasty, and the Russian-Mongolian border became a Sino-Russian border.

· 1689年(康熙二十八年),准噶尔、喀尔喀(图中噶尔丹)与清国的地图。康熙年间的《尼布楚条约》仅仅解决了中俄在东北的边界,中蒙俄的边界问题直至雍正五年(1727年)才基本解决

For various purposes, the Russian side always tries to seduce Mongolian tribes in the Qing Dynasty to defect, and tolerates Mongolians who have fled to Russia after crime. At the same time, Russia also refuses to severely punish Russian Mongolians who rob merchants across the border. Therefore, Qing Dynasty and theRussia is often caught in border disputes and frictions.

Every time there is friction, the Qing court will be proficient in using trade sanctions—close the Kaktu market. Mongolians in Russia have been robbed across the border and closed. The Russian Mongols have come to steal horses and closed the market. The Russians are actually facing privately.Chinese goods are taxed and closed.

· 清代越界的主要是布里亚特人,布里亚特人是蒙古人的一支,因俄罗斯东扩,其生活区域被划入俄罗斯境内。布里亚特人也成为了俄罗斯人

According to the Russian scholar Sergei Leonidovich Tikhvinski, the Qing side closed the Kaktu market slightly if it was unsatisfactory. From the nine years of Qianlong to the fifty-seven years of Qianlong, the number of market closures reached as many as ten times.Chinese scholars usually only record the three times that the market has been closed for the longest time.

Of course, the Qing court did not want to completely shut down the Kaktu market, but waited for the Russians to "know their regrets and pious requests" before agreeing to trade. Therefore, each time the market closed, Russia bowed its head and yielded.However, China's trade sanctions did not work in the fifty years of Qianlong 1785.

Foreigners must not have rhubarb in one day

Fifty years of Qianlong 1785, Mongolians in Russia once again robbed the merchants of the Qing Dynasty. After the Russians arrested the criminals, the Chinese and Russian parties will hold trials, the evidence is conclusive and can be convicted. However, Russia turned around and flogged the prisoners.Later exile to Siberia.

This is a serious violation of the "Qaqtu Boundary Covenant," which was strongly condemned by the Qing. According to custom, the Kaktu market should be closed again.

Initially, Chinese officials suspended trade for "a little temptation" and Russia "was really afraid" and promised to send criminals, stolen goods and compensation the next day. But it didn't take long for China to find that the Russians just said no.

So, the Chinese side closed the retreat partly as a warning to tell the Russians that if the prisoners are brought in, the market will be opened, and if the prisoners are not brought in, the markets will all be closed. However, the Russians did not turn in, and the Chinese side became open.Wei, completely shut down the Kaktu market.

· 乾隆三十年《清实录》中关于关闭恰克图市场的记录,关闭恰克图市场是大清国最常用的制裁手段

Nevertheless, why are the Russians reluctant to surrender the prisoners this time, or why they are reluctant to submit, still suspicion of the Qing court center far from the border. The court decided to send a commissioner to understand the situation in the past and help solve it.problem.

The chosen person is Cabinet bachelor Song Ye. Song Ye is from Mongolia and is good at Manchu, Chinese and Mongolian. This time, Song Ye was 34 years old and he was the frontier official.

· 松筠为清廷治边名臣,在几年后的英国使者马戛尔尼带团访华时,也是由松筠接待。松筠还被马戛尔尼称作「中国官吏中最有识见者」。图为松筠画像

Song's report is-this happened because the head of the Russian official was sick, "the Jalar people are confused."

However, according to Russian records, the Russian position that Song Zhi did not report upwards is that Russia is unwilling to impose capital punishment on criminals. The Qing Dynasty had strict criminal laws and meant to kill chickens and monkeys.However, regardless of political or legal considerations, the Russian side is unwilling to surrender and kill the prisoner. There is no need for conflict and no talk at all.

Unexpectedly, the turnaround of this incident occurred in the fifty-four years of Qianlong 1789.

This year, the Minister of Xinjiang Counsellor Mingliang seized two smuggling rhubarb incidents in succession, once with more than 5,000 pounds and once with more than 4,000 pounds. Later, Gubeikou and Aksu also discovered attempts to fake Central Asia and smuggled rhubarb toSmugglers in Russia. The total number of these smuggled rhubarbs is 18,000 kg.

Daqing officials opened up the trick: So it seems that the Russians are reluctant to bow their heads to the Qing again because of other ways to smuggle rhubarb. It can be seen that the Russians are asking for rhubarb, and the core of the trade between the two countries is alsorhubarb.

· 在《清实录》乾隆五十四年正月下中,记载了清廷对此案的处理以及随附的共识:「大黄为俄罗斯必需之物」

Then, the Emperor Qianlong required the rhubarb to be strictly inspected and strengthened. Even the western countries that traded in Guangdong were restricted in the amount of rhubarb purchases, which could not exceed 500 kg per year. This is because "Russia borders the Western Ocean.He resells rhubarb to western countries. "

The court now knows that Russia needs rhubarb, but why do Russians need so many rhubarbs? Emperor Qianlong and Manwu Wenwu are still puzzled about this. So Song Ye was sent to inquire and ask the Russians to buy rhubarb.use.

In traditional medicine, the most important function of rhubarb is to make diarrhea. Because of its fierce medicinal properties, rhubarb is also called "general" in Chinese medicine. For those who are weak, a dose of rhubarb may be fatal; but if it is a hangoverIf you do n’t use it, make good use of rhubarb. When the soldiers of the Qing Dynasty broke through at the end of the Ming Dynasty, Liang Tingdong, a key minister at the border, did not dare to fight, and he would die. He decided to eat rhubarb every day to commit suicide, and he soon achieved his wish.

· 直到今天,在中医和日本的汉方药剂中,大黄还是被用作通便的良品

After careful inquiry of the local Mongolians and their own knowledge of pharmacy, Song Yu gave his own answer: "Russia eats more fish and must use rhubarb to detoxify the fish. Special leaders should buy rhubarb powder to the genusNext, the official sells Jizhong ... Although the rhubarb is an herbal medicine, its Jizhong has no boundaries ... "

Part of Song Kuan's point of view is apparently from his experience in Mongolia. He once said, "It covers the Mongolian desert, and its subordinates do not eat rice and grains. They only eat beef and sheep crisp milk. Its viscera is flourishing, so it should be served."Mongolians need rhubarb to help excrete. Presumably the same is true of Russians.

· 蒙古人热爱喝奶茶,通常认为,这是因为茶叶可以补充蒙古人饮食中所缺乏的维生素

On the other hand, from the Song Dynasty, the Central Plains began to use the Yi people ’s love for tea to conduct tea-horse exchanges. In the Ming Dynasty, the idea of ​​"using tea to control the fan" came into being. During the Jiajing period, "ZhufanzhiThe term "food is nothing more than my tea."

And Russians also love to drink tea. Tea is also harmful, which adds to the general constipation in Russia and adds a real hammer.

It is even more convincing that the rhubarb smuggling case was investigated and dealt with shortly after. The Russians who blocked the dung gate and broke their way of life immediately came to beg for mercy :

Ruyi stated that he "remembers his regrets" and repeatedly sent official envoys to pray for the restoration of trade. Based on his sincere and humble attitude, Emperor Qianlong signed the "Chattu City Covenant" and officially resumed the mutual market. It is said that when the contract was signedWhen the Qing ambassador arrived, Russian Yi was rejoicing and pleased with the grandeur. In this way, the Shiquan old man calmed down Russian Yi without spending a single soldier.

· 戎装打扮的乾隆。因为和俄罗斯没有动武,战胜俄罗斯没能进入弘历皇帝的「十全武功」之中

The Chinese are a nation that values ​​history. After this victory, many people wrote down the Sino-Russian trade friction in their diaries and notes. The most famous of them is historian Zhao Yi."Eaves and Miscellaneous" wrote :

Russia also uses Chinese rhubarb as medicine, and the sick are not cured. The old taste of Tonggong Shi, Xu Qiyi, and the entrance is called "Chaktu". There are several things, and the death is absolutely impossible.Mutual market, do not export rhubarb, Russia was afraid and did not dare to cause trouble. Today, its trade is rampant. If the two things tea, rhubarb are born in heaven, it is also a tool for me to control foreign foreigners.

Reading this, we can't help worrying about the stomachs of the ancient Russians: when the rhubarb of the dynasty was not in the sky, what kind of life did they suffer?

Gold and Laxatives

In fact, rhubarb was rarely accessible to ordinary people in the eighteenth century in Russia, and in their medicine, rhubarb is not the "tiger wolf medicine" as traditional Chinese medicine thinks.

At that time, the "body fluid theory" of ancient Greece was still the core idea of ​​traditional medicine throughout Europe and the Islamic world.

"Body fluid theory" believes that the main reason for the body's illness is the imbalance between body fluids. The main way to treat the disease is to exclude a certain type of excess body fluids. Therefore, there are only two main therapies in the Western Ocean. The first is bloodletting, and the second isIt's a leak. And rhubarb is the best medicine to leak.

One European doctor appreciated rhubarb so much :

It quickly dissolves excess body fluids, especially black bile, and strengthens the stomach wall at the same time. It is also helpful for liver diseases, jaundice, stones and other disorders, and is also a good medicine for roundworms. Sometimes it is used as a laxative when itIts effectiveness is still outstanding when used as this effect, and it is suitable for any age and any constitution ...

Why did the Chinese eat the fatal rhubarb, but instead became a panacea? This is not because the physique is particularly excellent, but because the rhubarb used by traditional Chinese medicine is fierce, and the traditional medicines of Islam and Europe like to cookAfter using the rhubarb, it is best to soak it in spirits. The medicinal properties are much lessened. Europeans even use the rhubarb stalks for cooking.

· 草莓大黄派和大黄料理书籍

Because it is called "Elixir of Medicine", it is also an excellent food. Rhubarb is in great demand throughout Europe. And the largest and highest quality rhubarb in the world is produced in China, especially in Suzhou, China Now Jiuquan, Gansu Province.

Since the fourteenth century, a large amount of rhubarb has been transported from Suzhou to Europe every year. The Italian traveler Edoric called Gansu "the second best province in the world" because of the high quality of rhubarb.And amazingly cheap.

At the time, there were two types of rhubarb in the European market. One was the "Turkish rhubarb" shipped back by merchants, and the second was "Indian rhubarb" shipped from India, Britain, France, Netherlands, and Portugal. However, rhubarb is afraid of tide.The Indian rhubarb that comes by sea is of poor quality. If high-quality dried rhubarb can be transported by land to Europe, it will definitely make a lot of money, and the Russians see business opportunities among them.

· 17世纪一幅描述中国大黄的画像和文字说明,下方的文字为荷兰文

As early as the early 17th century, the Russian royal family began to collect rhubarb from Turkish and Mongolian merchants in Siberia, and then transferred it to the estuary of the Baltic Sea. Once, it can make a profit of 256%.

If you skip these middlemen who make a difference, the Czar can make more. So, in 1652 the nineth year of Shunzhi, the Czar organized the first diplomatic mission to the Qing and entrusted it with business.

The mission arrived in Beijing in 1656 13th year of Shunzhi. These "Rakshasa people" were regarded as tributary ambassadors similar to those of the messengers of North Korea and Siam, and they were warmly treated. The emperor Shunzhi also deliberately decried and appreciatedThe Russians are "sincerely committed" to Brexit and Qing. Although the two sides failed to establish diplomatic relations, the rhubarb brought back by the regiment is enough to satisfy the Tsar.

· 乾隆年间的《万国来朝图》,在《尼布楚条约》之后,俄罗斯也成为这个庞大朝贡体系的一环

The following year, the Tsar ordered the rhubarb to be included in the royal monopoly project, and no private transactions were allowed. The rhubarb was sold without amnesty. Initially, the Tsar profited through tendering and selling agency rights. In the years after the expansion of the war, Peter the GreatIn the era, Peter I simply decided to leave the agent and run the business himself, and changed to direct sales by the royal family.

In 1706, Peter the Great established the Chief Apothecary Office to introduce new medical practitioners from Scotland. Its important task is to examine rhubarb.

· 彼得大帝时期,因为缺乏战争经费,开始了沙俄皇室直营大黄

However, the rhubarb franchise is not as profitable as imagined. Tsarist Russia has repeatedly reaffirmed that smuggling kills without amnesty, killings without amnesty, but it appears that the government lacks the ability to control smuggling. In addition, the people do have the need to use rhubarb. Therefore, in 1714,Peter the Great limited release of control. Peter II ascended the throne in 1727, and once stopped the monopoly system, opening up rhubarb to free trading.

In 1728 the sixth year of Yongzheng, the “Kaktu Boundary Agreement” was signed, and a large number of folk merchants flocked to the Kaktu market to buy rhubarb. The Tsar regretted it. Someone bought it, indicating that the market is in strong demand, and there is only one merchant.It is easy to control. Therefore, in 1731, the Tsar resumed the rhubarb monopoly system and required all merchants to hand over the rhubarb to the treasury.

In 1735, all the rhubarb imported from Chucktu to St. Petersburg was exported by the royal family. Russia's "Crown Rhubarb" made a lot of money in Europe, and the tariffs on the Chucktu market were also important to Russia.Until the beginning of the nineteenth century, 15% -20% of the revenue of the state treasury came from the customs in Chucktu and the profits of the rhubarb trade.

· 中俄恰克图贸易路线

It is also because the Chucktu trade is too profitable that it is especially important for Russians. In the Sino-Russian friction, once China threatens to close the market, Russia will always yield quickly.

However, the rhubarb franchise of the Russian royal family is not a long-term solution.

From 1745, the international trade of Rhubarb changed. The UK and the Netherlands continued to dump low-priced competitive products, and the cost of land trade in Russia also increased year by year. Coupled with the risks brought by the closing of the market, the profits of Rhubarb trade became less and less.

Finally, in 1781 46 years of Qianlong, Ekaterina decided to abandon the monopoly of the rhubarb royal family and allow private merchants to import rhubarb. Therefore, during the fifty years of Qianlong 1785, the Chinese side closed the Chhattu trade.At that time, the official losses of the Russians were much lower than before. This time, the Russians could afford them.

· 叶卡捷琳娜的经略重心欧洲地区的黑海和波罗的海,对于东线屡屡退让

In the fifty-fourth year of Qianlong 1789, the rhubarb smuggling case occurred. These rhubarbs have nothing to do with the Russian royal family. They were all smuggled by Russian businessmen for profit, and they were unable to beat the results of the investigation by Song Zhi.

Let's review the results of the so-called investigation by Song Zhi again: "Russia eats more fish and must use rhubarb to detoxify the fish. The chief leader buys rhubarb to his subordinates and sells them to the public ... Although the rhubarb is an herbal medicine,It ’s a real world ... ”

In fact, when the Songzhuang investigation began, Russian border rhubarb inspectors had been rendered useless. As early as a century ago, fisheries between the Volga and Okak rivers in Russia had dried up, and most Russians used grainFor food, it is even more incapable of buying rhubarb that is more expensive than gold.

· 松筠关于俄罗斯的调查记录在其文集《绥服纪略》中,上图左为文集序言,右为关于大黄的调查

Russians do n’t eat fish, and they ca n’t afford rhubarb. Moreover, official sales are not for the benefit of the public, but to make a difference between middlemen. The investigation of Songhuan—or brain supplement, is almost all wrong.

Then, why did the Russians yield when the Qing court strictly investigated rhubarb smuggling?

—— This is just a coincidence. At the time of Qianlong ’s investigation of Rhubarb 1789, Russia was involved in the Russo-Turkish War in 1787 and the Russo-Russian War in 1788.Under tight conditions and insufficient tax sources, Yekaterina II could only bow his head to the Qing Emperor in order to reopen the Chaktu market.

·叶卡捷琳娜二世执政期间,俄罗斯在欧洲多线开战,因此在东方对清朝有求必应

China and Russia finally reached the Chucktu City Covenant in the 58th year of Qianlong 1793. Russians in the north were willing to bow their heads for rhubarb, and Western merchants trading in Guangdong traded for the rhubarb exports issued by the Qing court.The injunction was bitter and bitter, and asked the heavenly court to reward more rhubarb, so that the Qing arrogance reached its peak.

It was the year that the "Qaqtu City Treaty" was signed in the 58th year of Qianlong. The Emperor Qianlong said to Majiaerni that "the abundance of heavenly products is omnipresent, and it was originally foreign."Goods are available on a regular basis ".

Since then, in the 13th year of Jiaqing, 5th of Daoguang, and 9th of Daoguang, the Qing court retired from the country through the embargo of ocher yellow. Sure enough, "Tianruo gave birth to these two things tea, rhubarb, and controlled it for my dynasty.There is also a foreign body. "

· 道光十四年(1834年),两广总督卢坤曾勒令对英国禁运大黄、茶叶,同时以强硬手段,把英国商务代表律劳卑(William John Lord Napier)驱逐到澳门。不久律劳卑客死澳门,使得「夷情敛慑」

So, in the 20th year of Daoguang 1840, when the British warship really opened to the door of the house, Wenwu of the Daqing Manchu dynasty also thought of using tea rhubarb to restrict people.

Although he has repeatedly dealt with foreigners, the arrogant monarchs and princes of the dynasty did not want to understand that the trade of the Qing Dynasty was for politics, and the foreign trade was really for trade.


参考资料:

[1]郭孟良:《试论明代的「以茶治边」政策》,《中国边疆史地研究导报》,1996年第6期。

[2]周重林:《林则徐以茶禁烟》,《中国海关》,2012年第6期。

[3]甘满堂:《以茶制夷——论鸦片战争中清政府中止与英国贸易之目的》,《农业考古》,1996年第02期。

[4]周重林、太俊林:《茶叶战争——茶叶与天朝的兴衰》,华中科技大学出版社2012年版。

[5]高春平:《晋商与中俄恰克图茶叶贸易》

[6]王澎:《清代中俄交涉案件的法律适用研究》,《历史学研究》,第29卷。

[7]张哲嘉:《大黄迷思——清代制裁西洋禁运大黄的策略思维与文化意涵》,「中央」研究研究院近代史研究所集刊第37期。

Text | Wen Shao

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