Lion, Tiger, Leopard Mountain Lion, Wolverine, who is the final winner?
Who is stronger than a lion and a tiger? Who is better at hunting in the feline and canine families? Who is the oldest cat in the family leopard and mountain lion? Those who are interested in these issues are not just us ordinary animal lovers,There are experts who study animal ecology and anatomy. As everyone knows, the most important thing for hunting and fighting is the skull and forelimbs. This time, the experts analyzed the forelimb bone structure of cats and canines. Let's take a look at who is the strongest.
Tiger, King of Beasts, deserved name
Forelimb hardware calculation
Experts measured and calculated the forelimb bones of 31 cats and 17 canines in detail, and set up 13 indicators, each of which represents a certain aspect of the animal's ability. Measured numbersAll are relative to the size of the animal, so it can be a good reference for the animal's ability to hunt and fight in the same body. The results are shown below, and then we will explain to you in detail what these indicators are for.
Cat and Dog Forelimb Hardware Calculation Results
The 13 indicators can tell us which predators are strength type and which are speed type. For the sake of explanation, these indicators are classified into two categories: thickness indicators and length indicators.
Calculation formula of forelimb hardware index
As the name suggests, the thickness index is a measure of bone stiffness. There are 10 indicators. Among them are the palm width PAW, wrist width RAI, wrist area RAA, metacarpal thickness MC3RI, and toe joint area MC3AA These five indicators are closely related to the strength of the animal's forefoot, grip stability, and pressure-bearing capacity of the forefoot and wrist.
The humerus is the thickest bone in the upper arm, and the radius is the thickest bone in the forearm. The humerus thickness index HRI and radius thickness index RRI represent the humerus and radius's ability to withstand the reaction force of palm stroke and anti-bite, respectively.Bones are less prone to fractures.
The epicondyle is the thickest part of the humerus and there are multiple flexor muscles attached to it. Therefore, the epicondylar index HEI measures the size of several muscles related to fighting and is directly related to the strength and agility of the forelimbs. The width of the elbow jointHAI and elbow joint area HAA are two indexes that measure the size of the elbow joint. They determine the strength and flexibility of forearm rotation, and the gripping ability of the forelegs.
These coarseness indicators, big cats in broad usage, including clouded leopards and mountain lions all top the list, but leopards and mountain lions lag behind tigers, jaguars, and lions. In the dog family, the performances of dogs and mules areNot bad, only behind big cats, individual indicators upper palate, relative size of elbow and wrist joints even surpassed leopards and mountain lions. The top of the small and medium cats are fishing cats and tiger cats. CatsGenus, serval, fox true fox, excluding gray fox and crab-eating fox, jackal and maned wolf.
The length indicator only measures three. The humeral length index 1 / BI is used to measure the relative length of the humerus. The forelimb of the animal can be regarded as a lever, the elbow joint is the fulcrum, the humerus upper arm is the power arm, and the radiusForearm is the resistance arm. Therefore, the longer forelimbs of the humerus are more powerful, including Asian golden cats, clouded leopards, schnauzers, fine-waisted cats, large cats, tiger cats, and lynxes. Maned wolf, canis, serval cat, Canadian lynxCormorants, Spanish tapirs, and felines have relatively long radial bones. These animals have weak forelimbs, but are suitable for catching small, dexterous, or very capable prey.
Canada 猞 猁
The olecranon is a bony hump of the ulna at the elbow with the triceps brachii attached.The triceps brachii is the only extensor of the upper arm. Therefore, a higher olecranon index OI means that the forelegs have a stronger stretching force.Animals have more power to put their prey down for fixation and biting. Mastiffs rank first, followed by big cats, and leopards and mountain lions are slightly behind, and fishing cats, African wild dogs, mastiffs, clouded leopards, and wolves are also strong.. At the bottom are the maned wolf, feline, Canadian lynx and tortoise.
Toe Length Index MCP measures forefoot flexibility. This indicator is different from other ones. Small prey hunting experts have higher scores. Only big leopards, snow leopards are among the best, and leopards, cheetahs and mountain lions all count down. Sandcat,Canada, these always came at the bottom, only the maned wolf is still at the bottom.
Maned wolf: penultimate in ten thousand years
Quantitative analysis of forelimb hardware
In order to quantify the 13 forelimb hardware indicators, we use a percentage system to score, taking the so-called omnipotent jaguar as 100 points, and other species to calculate the corresponding score based on the relative value with the jaguar, and finally obtain the average score of the 13 indicatorsThe higher the score, the better the combat. The impact of these indicators on combat effectiveness is certainly asymmetric, but we cannot know their respective weights at the moment, so we can only use this simple calculation as a reference.
Quantitative analysis of feline and canine forelimb hardware
The results show that the tiger is worthy of being the king of beasts, ranking first, and the jaguar is following behind with a slight gap. The two are the most suitable forelimb structures in existing cats and dogs. The next is the clouded leopard 3, Lion 4, and Snow Leopard 5. The Mastiff 6 is ranked before the Leopard 7, and the Fishing Cat 8 is ranked before the Mountain Lion 9. The Mastiff is ranked 10th.
We found that the strength of the forelimbs is strongly related to the taxonomic group to which the animals belong. The cats are much stronger than the dogs. The top 17 are 15 cats and 2 dogs, and the bottom 12 are 2 cats and dogs.10 kinds.
Even if the size factor is excluded, large predators are better at fighting than small predators. This is particularly evident in cats, because the cats have a more complete dietary differentiation, and large cats often kill larger ungulates. They need toGreater power; while small cats feed on smaller prey rabbit, mouse than themselves, speed and agility are more important.
In the feline family, the forelimbs of the leopard family are stronger than the feline family, and the weakest leopard leopard is also stronger than the strongest cat fishing cat. In the feline family, the Asian golden cat 12 and the cloud cat13 Tiger cats 11 and long-tailed tiger cats 16, and mountain lions 10 and thin-waisted cats 14. The three small branches are stronger. The largest in each family is often the strongest forelimb hardware, Such as the tiger cat of the tiger cat genus, the fishing cat of the genus leopard cat, and the Eurasian magpie 17.
Island Grey Fox
The wolf and the African wild dog are the two largest dog families involved in the evaluation. They are among the best in the dog family Nos. 3 and 5 in the Canidae family, respectively, but they are only below the mid-stream level of the Kobe Bryant 18 and 25 overall.It is worth noting that the little-known grey fox family has good strength. This family includes two small primitive dogs in California called foxes instead of foxes: grey fox 28, canidae 6 and island grey fox 20, Canine 4, they have higher humeral length, toe length, and wrist area index scores.
Maned wolf 48, penultimate 1, fox 37-47, canine coyote and jackal 38-42 in the canine family have very weak forelimb hardware, and they almost covered the bottom ten in the overall list.The weakest cat in the family is the tortoiseshell cat 45, followed by domestic cats 30-43. The weakest big cat is the cheetah 32, and the weakest lynx is the Canadian lynx 35..
Combat application one: feline internal fighting
Below, we can use the data above to solve practical problems. What everyone is most interested in is the lion and tiger fight. In general, lions and tigers are very capable types, and tigers rank first.The lion ranks fourth. We found that 11 of the 13 indicators are better than the lion, but most of them are next to each other. The only difference is the humerus length and toe length. The relative length of the humerus determinesThe mechanical advantages of the forelimbs indicate that the tiger's forelimbs are more powerful, and the lion has an advantage in running. This may be because the lion lives on the endless grassland, which is not ambush and requires more hunting.
Again, the “Four Fourth Cat” dispute. From the results, Leopard is stronger than Mountain Lion, but the gap between the two is smaller than Tiger and Lion. 13 indicators Leopard leads 8 and Mountain Lion leads 4 and Brachial lengthAlmost equal. Leopard's forelimbs are characterized by thick upper humerus and lower radius thin, and the limb bones are relatively wide and flat, which is a typical feature of the leopard family. Mountain lions are almost as thick as the humerus and radius, and the limb bonesRound and thick, which is why the mountain lion's forelegs are visually thicker than the leopard.
Tigers and lions, leopards and mountain lions are very similar in body shape. The skull hardware is also stronger than tigers and leopards, specifically in terms of canine tooth length and bite power being ahead of their opponents. Therefore, we say that tigers are better than lions.Strong, leopard is stronger than mountain lion, which is undoubtedly correct. But on the other hand, the hardware gap between these two groups is really not large. Some people say that it depends on the specific individual and whoever is older.Tigers can defeat, and Mountain Lions do the same to Leopards.
Also readers like to ask, if you can enlarge a domestic cat to the size of a tiger, can you beat a tiger? The calculation results clearly show that even when placed in the same body size, the forelimb strength of small cats is obviously not as good as that of large cats.The ancestor of domestic cats, wild cats, is the third-to-last feline 36 overall. Domestic cats catch mice every day, while tigers catch wild boars, deer, and bison. The two are not comparable.When a cat is as big as a tiger, it not only loses its strength, but also loses its agility. So don't always think how powerful the domestic cat is. Its wild relatives are stronger than it.
The example of the feline subfamily killing the leopard subfamily, the only verifiable thing is that the fishing cat in the zoo kills the female leopard. According to the calculation results, the forelimb strength of the fishing cat is the first in the feline subfamily, which is comparable to non-domestic cats; and the leopardIt is the penultimate subfamily of the Leopardaceae, and has limited advantages over fishing cats with similar body sizes. In this incident, there was a large gap between the two wild animals. The fishing cat was a wild catcher who had just entered the park, and the female leopard was alreadyTamed.
Practical application 2: Cross-border fighting animal
Cats and dogs are old rivals. Let ’s compare them with Eurasian jackals and wolves as an example. From the evaluation, the difference between the total scores of jackals and wolves is not large, but there are obvious differences in individual indicators, 13 indicators猞 猁 leads 7 and wolf leads 6. In general, the 猞 猁 humerus is thick, the forefoot is wide, and the toe bone is long, while the wolf's elbow joint is thick and the radius is more developed. This is also typical of feline and caninedifference.
In the spring of 2017, a male cricket pressed a male wolf to the ground in Belarus, and injured the wolf's abdomen; the local male wolf weighed about 1.7 times that of the male cricket. It can be seen that when cats and dogs are quantified in hardwareIn the case of close scores, the cat is still significantly stronger than the dog. This may be because the forelimbs of the canine family can only be used to push and squeeze the opponent. It does not have the strong functionality of the forelimbs of the feline family, and the feline family is also retractable.Sharp claws.
Conversely, if the cat family is larger than the canine family, there will be one-on-one situations such as mountain lions and wolves. Mountain lions have a record of killing two wolves and successfully killing one. In general,Canines are far inferior to cats in size and hardware, and their single combat capabilities are not comparable to felines, so they choose to live in groups for food.
Cheetahs usually do not dare to resist when they see a hyena, but leopards, especially males, dare to challenge the hyenas, because the leopard under the same body is much stronger than the cheetah. The Canadian lynx has been hunted and killed by its fisherman for many times.It makes everyone suspect that the cat family is not a competitor of the ferret family. Although there are some reasons for the ferret itself to be strong and rely on special circumstances, the Canadian magpie is indeed a waste wood in the cat family the fourth lowest;The tail cat can frequently kill female minks, and the Eurasian lynx can run away the wolverine.
In the article some time ago, I told you the story of dog badger and badger, two dog badgers 4.5-6 kg in Belarus bitten a dog badger about 11 kg. From today's evaluationJudging from the fact that the badger is indeed a ruthless character. Although the badger is the strongest dog in the family, there is currently no data to evaluate its combat effectiveness.
By analyzing these data provided by experts, we can easily know which kind of predator has more powerful forelimbs. However, no structure is perfect, and the pursuit of strength requires sacrificing speed and agility. Animal body structureBoth are the best adaptations to their respective living environments and prey. For example, the long forelimbs of the maned wolf and the tortoise are weak, but they expand the attack range and are very useful for catching mice. The foxes and cats have thinner bonesThis is probably a kind of "burden reduction", they are very small prey species, so they rarely encounter fierce resistance.
In addition, the inter-species competition between carnivores is by no means as simple as mechanical beasts. Although the canines are not capable of single cells, the colony makes up for this disadvantage, so coyotes can defeat short-tailed cats and wolves.You can defeat the mountain lion. The environment can greatly affect the performance of animals. The wolf that can suppress the mountain lion in North America can't even deal with it in Europe. Nature is so wonderful!
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