Obviously it is a garden but there is no mountain with a drop of water. What is the origin of Japan's "dead landscape"?

2019-12-11 | hand look original |


"The pavilions are covered with green shadows, and strange mountains and rivers flow around."

Speaking of gardens, Suzhou gardens must be the representatives of our gardening circles. Pavilions, green leaves, moss, and mountains and rivers are exactly the places where literati and poets touch the scene.

But there is a peculiar garden in Japan. It does not have green trees growing everywhere, and there is no free flowing water. People call this "run-down" garden landscape as "dead landscape".

● King Kong-Feng Temple Stone Garden

Dried landscape, also known as Tangshan and dry landscape. The word "dry" does not mean literally "dry mountain and water", but means dry, minimalist. So everything in the dry landscape garden,It is almost static and lifeless. It is dry and still, which completely subverts the impression of the garden in people's minds.

Dry landscape garden, no pond or water, often only standing stones and white sand, and these two are the "mountain" and "water" in dry landscape water. The standing stone is the mountain, and the rake sand is the water, only through the pendulum of sand and stone.Putting and combining together can present the ever-changing flowing water and the universe, transmuting the aesthetic consciousness of "mourning," "empty," and "mysterious."

● Monk is meditating in front of the dry landscape garden

The "Creation of the Court" in the Heian period of Japan is the earliest document in the history of dry landscapes. It gives the dry landscapes a special meaning in the book: standing stones in the pond and water are the so-called dry landscapes.Sand makes mountains and flowing water, so that people can enjoy the scenery of the wild.

In the Muromachi period, with the prevalence of Japanese Buddhism, the spirit of asceticism and self-discipline advocated in Zen Buddhism was favored by people. Artistic spirits such as solitude and quiet mystery were combined with dry landscape. Therefore, the dry landscape has a sense of desireSymbol, and became popular in Japan with an independent courtyard model, becoming Japan's most symbolic garden culture.

● Abbot's Garden of Gaotai Temple in Cherry Blossom Season

The formation of dry landscapes has nothing to do with China. After the ancient Japanese monks studied Zen thought in China, in order to express their spiritual practice, they built dry landscapes in the courtyards of Buddhist temples in Japan in order to seek spiritual sustenance.The basic ideological background is also Zen philosophy.

Chinese and Japanese gardens have the same origin, but after the influence of their own culture and geographical environment, Japanese gardens have formed their own unique style, and dry landscape is the representative of them. In terms of gardening ideas, Chinese gardens advocate "seeing nature in the artificial."", Dry landscape is" artificial in nature. "Therefore, the two are actually the same source and different streams.

● In the early morning, the workers at Bo Xinting of Gaotai Temple are lining up stones to make a landscape

The difference in gardening thinking is mainly due to the different geographical environment. One of the purposes of the gardener to build the garden is to move the scenery in nature to his home, so that people can enjoy the natural scenery without leaving the house. And chooseWhat kind of landscape depends on the gardener's understanding of the natural scenery of the motherland.

China is a vast country with vast rivers, lakes, desert grasslands, and green mountains. The natural environment is very rich. Based on this, gardeners build rockery, flowing water and pavilions in Chinese-style gardens. The layout of the gardens is very clever, showingA condensed nature. There are birdsongs, flowers, and flowing water. I try to create a natural feeling through artificial construction.

And Japan is an island country surrounded by the sea. Therefore, the importance of the ocean in Japanese culture is also reflected in the dry landscape of Japanese gardens. The white sand that originally symbolized the beach directly became the symbol of the ocean, and Tateishi alsoIt is no longer just mountains, but islands scattered on the sea.

● Dongyin Temple's Longyin Temple, Shijing Youlong jumps from the sea to rise to the sky with a cloud

Another reason for the different styles of dry landscapes and Chinese gardens is also the difference in ideology and culture.

In the early days, both China and Japan were influenced by Laozi's Taoist thought, pursuing inaction and advocating nature. In the later period, China respected Confucianism and Buddhism and formed the idea of ​​"the unity of man and nature". This kind of thinking was applied toAmong the gardens, it has become China's natural landscape garden.

After being influenced by Taoism, Japan was less affected by Confucianism and merged with later Buddhist thoughts. Later, religion became a powerful spiritual and political force in Japan, affecting all aspects of Japanese life.Aspect. The dry landscape garden combines ethereal and quiet Japanese Zen thought, which is the embodiment of Japanese Zen thought in the garden.

● The landscaped garden of Jinfu Temple with a cat

The beauty of dry landscape is mainly manifested in three aspects.

The first point is sand. In dry mountain water, sand is water. Constructors use rakes to draw different water patterns on the sand, with straight and curved lines, as a symbol of calm water and turbulent waves. People passTaste the change of sand grain to express the living state of water, and feel the change of your own mood.

The second point is stone. In every dry landscape, there will be one of the largest stones as the main stone, which is the symbol of the Sumeru mountain in Buddhism. This main stone is the origin of water, and the pattern of sand begins to multiply and change from here.The stones in the dry mountain water are all natural and unmodified, but their strong and upright spirit can be revealed through the buried stones.

● Stone also has a strong and upright spirit

The third point is the viewing angle. Both Chinese gardens and dry landscapes are affected by ink painting. The difference is that Chinese gardens pay attention to the dynamic fun of “moving and changing scenery, and people in the middle of the painting”. The dry landscapes are viewed statically, andMost are in different rooms and look out through different windows. The window frame is used as the picture frame, and the middle window is used as the wall painting, which reflects the enjoyment of meditation.

Without mountains and water, dry mountains and rivers, sand instead of water, and stones instead of mountains—through the artistic expression of metaphors and symbols, artificially arrange stones and sand to simulate the various ecological scenes of nature in the heart. It forms"Abstract Nature" is full of unique spirituality and charm.

● Longan Temple Stone Garden and Seated Spectator

Now, dry landscape is not limited to temples. Because of its simple and easy-to-find construction elements, many hotels and restaurants will also set aside a small world to build dry landscape. On the other hand, the design concept of "simple" dry landscapeUsed in modern design in Japan.

Today, if you visit the dry landscape gardens such as the famous Tofukuji Temple and Ryoanji Temple in Kyoto, Japan, you can still see many tourists who come to worship-they face the dry landscape and can sit silently for half a day, as if thisA piece of dry landscape hides their innermost interpretation of the world.

One sand and one world is the realm of Zen enlightenment in Buddhism. Dry landscapes use the simplest sand and stones to build an understanding of the world in their hearts. The change of the four seasons and the change of the sun and the moon will make the dry landscape appear different. Maybe, thisFang Xiaoshi is the condensed world of these thousands, and it is also an extension of the spiritual world of every viewer.

Reference :

"Knowing Sun, Dry Landscape" by Tea Oolong

"History of Japanese Literary Trends" by Ye Weiqu

"An article to understand the Japanese style" Dry Landscape "/ current affairs literature and history

The Difference and Harmony between Chinese Classical Garden Rockery and Japanese Dry Landscape / Hong Guo

"On the Differences between Japanese Landscape Architecture and Chinese Classical Gardens"

"Understanding Dry Landscape: I am not a fake garden" article / art handwriting

"Why the" no phase "dry landscape kills countless people in the world?" Article / new landscape design

NHK Beauty Pot Series Episode 49: Withered Landscape か れ さ ん す い 2007

produced by "Hand Watch Sowarm"

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