"Too long to watch" what have we lost?
When the brain skims the text, we do not have time to understand the complexity, nor can we understand the feelings of others and the beauty of the text.
The next time you take a plane, look around and you will find that iPad has become a new type of pacifier for babies; children who just go to school read stories on their smartphones, and senior students simply do n’t read and bend over.Back immersed in the game world; parents and some other passengers read on the Kindle, or quickly "brushed" a long list of emails and news feeds. What most people don't realize is that people in this scene are all inIn an invisible revolution: from young children who can't read yet to academic experts among adults.
Neuroscience research shows that this circuit evolved from a simple mechanism to decode basic information; starting from counting sheep in the flock, we gradually developed extremely complex reading skills. My research is dedicated to interpreting current readingBrain, trying to portray how it contributes to the development of some of our most important intellectual and emotional processes: knowledge internalization, analogical reasoning, and logical reasoning; empathy and empathy; critical analysis and the generation of insights. Today, many around the worldCutting edge research warns us :
This is not a simple problem between paper books and e-books, nor is it the cliché of "technology is a double-edged sword." As MIT scholar Sherry Turkle said,At this critical juncture in the printed and digital cultures, society must face up to these issues-which brain circuits dedicated to reading are shrinking, what abilities our children and seniors have failed to develop, and how we canresponse.
Scientific research tells us that reading is not the same as vision or language. Reading circuits are not given to humans by innate genetic blueprints. It needs to develop in the environment. Not only that, it will adapt to environmental requirements. If mainstream media like todayElectronic media encourages reading processes that are fast, multi-tasking-oriented, and able to adapt to large amounts of information, and our reading circuit will move in this direction. UCLA psychologist Patricia Greenfield, And all of these abilities are essential for learning at any age.
More and more education surveys and psychological and anthropological studies confirm this. English literature scholar and teacher Mark Edmundson said that many college students try to avoid reading 19, 20Century classic literature, because they have no patience to deal with long, dense and difficult texts. However, compared with the "" of these students, the deeper problem under this phenomenon is more worrying: whether it is school literatureOr scientific reading materials, or wills, contracts, and questionnaires that were deliberately obscure during the referendum, they may be difficult to understand.
Anne Mangen, a psychologist in Stavanger, Norway, and colleagues conducted a study to examine how different media have affected high school students' understanding of the same material. Mangen's team asked participants to read short storiesNovel "Jenny, Mon Amour"-This is a sexy and seductive love story, students generally like this plot-and then asked them to answer some related questions; half of the students on the KindleRead, while the other half read paperbacks. As a result, students who read printed materials understand better than those who read on the screen, and they perform particularly well on the task of listing details and recounting the plot in chronological order.
A series of studies by Liu Aiming of San Jose State University shows that many people today read according to the trajectory of "F" or "Z". They first extract the first sentence of each paragraph, and then look for the remaining text accordingly.Keywords. When
Karin Littau and Andrew Piper noticed another dimension of reading: materiality. Li Tao, Pepper and Mangen emphasized that the touch of printed matter adds information to the messageImportant redundancy-such redundancy gives the word "geometry" and a spatial "thereness" to the text. Peiper points out-what he calls "reproduced technology"Recurrence is important for young or older readers, because it involves the ability to go back somewhere in the text to check and self-assess the level of understanding. The next problem is that when it is difficult to "return" due to the lack of space and sexualityWhat about their understanding of the text when they are skimming?
American media researcher Lisa Guernsey, American university linguist Naomi Baron, and Tami Katzir, a cognitive scientist at the University of Haifa, visitedThe impact of different information media on people especially young people. Katz research found that the negative effects of screen reading are already reflected in the students in the fourth and fifth grades of elementary school, and not limited to the ability to understand,
Our electronic culture may inadvertently cause "collateral damage" to critical analysis, empathy, and other in-depth reading processes-but the problem is far more than choosing print or electronic screens. The point is that this is more than justQuestions for young people. The gradual shrinking of critical analysis and empathy affects everyone. Our ability to swim for a long time in the ocean of information is not as good as before. This also forces us to fall back to the familiar unreviewed information warehouse,Fall back to a zone that has not been analyzed and has not been analyzed, and the result is-
There is a golden rule in neuroscience that does not change with time, and that is "". This criterion brings hope to the critical thinking of the reading brain, because it implies that choice still exists. The evolutionary story of the reading brain is far away.Far from finishing. Before these changes in reading methods were ingrained, we already had the scientific and technological means to identify and correct them. As long as we strive to find out what humans will lose and pay attention to the new capabilities that the electronic age has given us, we willIt is found that longing and caution are actually two sides of a coin.
We need to cultivate a new type of brain: such a brain can take on many heavy responsibilities: can citizens in a vibrant democratic society think in other places, dispel falsehood, and save truth; will our children and grandchildren have the ability to appreciate and create beauty;Also, can we get rid of the current information frenzy and find the knowledge and wisdom necessary to maintain the good functioning of society.
Translation: Ear proofing: Jon-Lou Edit: sparklegoose, North
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