Lion, Tiger and Jaguar Hunting Behavior Comparison, Revealing Anatomical Differences of Three Big Cats
Lion, tiger, jaguar are the three largest cats. They all maintain a cat-like shape and are also ambush hunters. However, they also exist in various details related to hunting.Significant difference. Try to make a comparison below.
△ Jaguar, also known as Jaguar, the largest feline in the Americas and the third largest feline in the world
Prey type: Lion is most picky
A feature of the diet structure of the lion is that the conventional hunting animals are large, significantly larger than tigers and jaguars. The staple food of lions includes wildebeests, bison, zebras, and a variety of antelopes. Except for a few antelopes, they are all larger than lions.In South Africa, the average lion's prey weighs about 400 kilograms, which is more than twice its own. The average lion's prey weighs about 130 kilograms, almost as big as itself. Lions are the only large cats living in groups, which makes them capable.Large ungulates are frequently predated. At the same time, group hunting means greater demand for food, which constitutes the pressure and motivation for lions to hunt large prey.
△ Lion kills bison
Tiger and jaguar's main hunting objects are much larger or smaller than the hunter itself, and at most slightly larger than the hunter. The staple food of the Siberian tiger is wild boar and red deer, and the prey weighs about 100 kilograms. The staple food of the Bengal tiger is the white spotted deer.At only 55 kg, sambars and white-legged bison are larger than tigers, but they are secondary prey. The average prey weight of Meng tiger is about 65 kg. In the Hokkien Conservation Area of Thailand, the staple food of Indo-Chinese tiger is only about20 kilograms. Jaguars feed on tadpoles, armadillos, capybara, and caiman, and their average prey weight is less than 20 kilograms. Lions are not only the largest prey, they are also the most picky. According to expert surveys, prey on the menu of lions in various placesThe species are basically within 20 species, and some areas are still single digits. In contrast, the Nagarhorey tiger's menu has 490 kinds of food, and Nepal's Chiwang is 220. The species of prey in the jaguar diets in all places exceed100 kinds.
△ Jaguar Hunting Capybara
Lions almost only eat ungulates. In most areas, ungulates account for more than 98% of lion diets. Although lions sometimes kill other predators, including similar species, leopards, hyenas, or crocodiles, they almost neverEat. In Kruger, experts counted 12,000 hunts by lions and found that only 0.4% of them were carnivorous, and reptiles were almost zero.
△ Tiger Predator White Spotted Deer
Although tigers and jaguars also prefer hoofed animals, they are unwilling to come to all kinds of prey. Tigers like dog meat very much and are notorious killers of domestic dogs. Siberian tigers like bears, and Indo-Chinese tigers like to eat.Pig salamanders, salamanders, leopards, monkeys and lizards are on the Bengal tiger's menu. In Campeche Reserve, Mexico, jaguar diets account for up to 18% of carnivores and 10% of birds; in some areas,For example, in the flood plains of northern Colombia, reptiles caiman, freshwater turtles, and iguanas account for more than one-third of the jaguar diet. The three big cats are opportunistic predators.Any animal is their potential prey, and their favorite foods are hoofed animals. However, the large hoofed animals in the lion territory are far more abundant than the tiger and jaguar territory, so it is not necessary to try to eat some sideways.The tigers and jaguar live in tropical jungles where the number of ungulates is limited and not so easy to encounter, so their food composition is more diverse.
△ Jaguar Predator Huangshui
Hunting Technology: Ambush & Hunting
Generally, cats are ambush hunters, lions, tigers, and jaguars are no exception. They all find the prey first, then dive in, and finally launch a sudden attack on the subdued prey. The most important thing is to sneak in,Studies have shown that the success rate of hunting is very high if the lion can be within 7.6 meters of the Thom's gazelle; but if the final sprint distance exceeds 15 meters, the hunting operation is almost doomed to fail. Big cats need a certain form to get close to the prey.The shelter is not a problem for the tigers and jaguars living in the forest, but the lions are more headaches. Because the lions live on the endless savanna, the environmental visibility is too high, and the prey can be seen all the wayThe lion ran away.
△ Lion attacks bison
Although lions try their best to get close to their prey, some lions like to hunt on moonless nights, and some lions like to hunt before the storm, but subject to environmental conditions, the final sprint distance of lions is usually greater than that of tigers and tigers.The jaguar's, that is, the lion's attack farther away from its prey, needs to chase farther distance. Therefore, the running speed is more important for the lion than the tiger and jaguar. The lion's forelimb has many anatomy and accelerationSpeed is related. For example, the lion's radius forearm is relatively long, while the humerus upper arm is relatively short, which is good for increasing stride. The lion's radius / humerus ratio is 91.1%, second only to big catsCheetahs 97.5% are much higher than tigers 85.6% and jaguars 83.3%. Prey hunters usually have a larger ratio, such as wolf's radial / brachial length ratio is 97.3%, and African wild dogs are as high as 105.2%..
△ Tiger attacks bison
Lion sacrifices part of its strength in pursuit of a faster speed. The higher radius / brachial length means that the forearm, the biological lever, has a longer resistance arm forearm and a shorter power arm upper arm. In this way, the sameUnder the muscle strength of a lion, the actual strength of a lion's forelimbs is not comparable to that of tigers and jaguars, and the strength of its forelimbs is directly related to its ability to bring down its prey. If a lion and a tiger slap their wrists, it will not be as good as a tiger, but also 掰However, the jaguar of the same size. For another example, the running of tetrapods is mainly driven by the great round muscle. The lion's attachment area index on the scapula is 35.3% for the lion, which is close to 38.1% for the cheetah, which is much larger than the 27-28 for the jaguar.%, And the tiger is the same as the lion, which is also 35.3%. The jaguar's prey are some relatively bulky guys, the strength is the most important, the speed is secondary. And the tiger ’s staple food, the deer, also runs fast, so the tiger focuses on strength, And also pay attention to speed.
△ Jaguar catching caiman
Mr. Schaller has measured the speed of tigers and lions, and found that the Bengal tiger's speed is 56km / h deer and tiger, 1967, and the lion is 59km / h serengeti's lion, 1972. Another articleThe tiger ’s speed of 54.4km / h and the lion ’s 57.3km / h are given in the document Differential scaling of relative running speed in mammals. The values given in the land animal speed entry in the wiki encyclopedia are the tiger ’s 51.4km / h and the lion ’s 53.5km./ h, jaguar 46.7km / h. The measured results show that the lion is slightly faster than the tiger, and the jaguar is significantly slower.
△ Tiger is a hunter with both power and speed
Biting method: Lock throat & Headshot
After catching and subduing the prey, the next step is to bite the prey. There are two common ways to kill bites in cats: one is to lock the throat, bite the prey and lower the junction of the front neck slightly, and cut offThe trachea kills the prey by suffocation. The second is biting the neck, inserting canine teeth into the gap between the two cervical vertebrae of the prey, and destroying the spinal nerve cord. The lion mainly locks the throat, and 72% of the prey are killed by the lock.The tiger is very skilled in both techniques. The jaguar will also have a third way to bite and kill. This has never been seen on other big cats, that is, headshots, biting the skull directly between the ears of the prey to bite the prey.Spike.
△ Jaguar will head west head
In the past, everyone noticed that the lion ’s prey is the largest, and the throat lock is the safest and most effective way to kill large prey. The jaguar ’s prey is relatively small and has a strong counterattack ability Western crocodile and crocodile.It is better to kill the prey by hitting it with a headshot. This is mainly an ecological analysis, and it also makes sense. For example, it is observed that tigers usually bite the neck of small prey and lock the throat of large prey. However,This kind of statement cannot explain why jaguar hunting and killing domestic cattle and horses are headshots. What is special about jaguar teeth? According to Australian scholar Stephen Wroe's calculation, the bite force of a 159 kg tiger canine teeth is1060N, 176 kg of lion is 1314N, and 86 kg of jaguar is 1109N. On the biting power quotient measures the biting power of the same size, the tiger is 108, the lion is 105, and the jaguar is 121. It can be seen that under the same sizeTiger biting force is slightly greater than lion, but as long as the lion weighs more than the tiger, the biting force can surpass. The jaguar biting quotient is significantly larger than the lion and tiger, and the biting force is relatively larger.Head is of great help.
△ Little female tiger catches wild boar
However, Jaguars like to play headshots not because of the strength of the bite quotient, but because of the difference between lion and tiger bites. Although the basic shapes of the lion, tiger and jaguar are similar, but in some detailsThere are obvious differences. Specifically, the lion skull is relatively narrow and long, and the sagittal ridges located at the top line of the skull and behind the head are more developed, while the tiger and jaguar are "wide faces", and the arches on both sides of the skull are more developed.Mouth movement is mainly caused by two chewing muscles: the temporal muscle attached to the zygomatic arch and the masseter muscle attached to the sagittal ridge. The difference in skull shape will affect the attachment area of the temporal muscle and masseter muscle, and then affect the twoThe strength of a block muscle. According to Danish scholar P. Christiansen's calculations, the jaguar's temporal muscle attachment area is 3.5 times that of the masseter muscle, while the lion is only 1.1 times and the tiger is 2.1 times. In other words, the jaguar's temporal muscle is moreThe lion ’s masseter muscle is more developed, and the tiger is in between. The temporal muscle is mainly responsible for closing the mouth of the animal, and the masseter muscle works after the mouth is closed. Therefore, the jaguar ’s strength is that the mouth is closed.That oneIt is particularly fierce, and the lion's strength is the endless biting power and the full strength.
△ Comparison of Three Cats' Biting Forces
Carnivorous canine teeth are non-renewable, so headshots are not an economical way. Louise Emmons, a jaguar expert who has worked in Peru for a long time, noticed that many jaguar canine teeth in the museum were severely worn or broken. However,This kind of bite kill method fully utilizes the strong strength of jaguar's mouth strength, while avoiding the weakness of jaguar's not good at locking throat, so it is very suitable for jaguar. And the temporal muscle strength of lion is difficult to bite through the skull of prey.The powerful masseter muscle has made it the best feline for locking the throat. The lion has also developed another bite killing method: biting the nostrils to suffocate the prey. This trick is only used by some lions, which tests the stamina's stamina..
△ Lion Uniform Zebra
How to eat: Why does a lion never hide food?
Cats all adopt a "hunger and hunger" lifestyle. For example, an adult tiger needs an average of 5-7 kg of food per day, but in the first few days after successfully capturing its prey, it eats 14-16 kilograms of meat, in the extreme case it can swallow more than 30 kilograms of meat at night, and it will rest for a few days before eating the next round of hunting. This is also the way of life of the lion and jaguar. Sometimes tigers capture large preyTo avoid being disturbed by humans and scavengers, it will drag the carcass away, transport it to a safe place, and slowly eat it. At this time, the power of the tiger is full of legends. A record in Myanmar states that a tigerA 770-kilogram bison carcass was towed, which 13 adults could n’t move. Another tiger dragged an adult cow carcass and jumped onto a 4-meter-high embankment. The tiger sometimes leftThe prey finds a place to drink water or rest. At this time, it usually buryes the prey with leaves or soil.
△ Jaguar drags South American tapir carcass
The difference between a jaguar and a tiger is that it never buries its prey, but its feat in hauling its prey is comparable to that of a tiger. In Venezuela, a female jaguar drags a cow carcass 180 kg away.After 200 meters, and another jaguar killed a cow, he dragged the cow carcass down the river and swam 800 meters in the rapids. However, we were surprised that the lion never seemed to hide its prey, especially forLarge prey, they always eat on-site. This is first because lions are social animals, as Dr. Schaller observed, when a lion is going to tow the prey, other lions will pull in the opposite direction, and any lion will drag the prey.Attempts are futile.
△ Lion eating together
On an endless prairie, the pressure of scavengers facing lions is much greater than that of tigers and jaguars. Vultures have long known where lions hunt, and once vultures begin to circle and land, hyenas, jackals and other lionsThey will come quickly and want a portion of the cricket. The lion is the most powerful predator on the grassland. As long as it is on the scene, vultures, hyenas and jackals have to stand back. However, once it leaves, the carcass is hiddenLive, scavengers can sacrifice their prey bones in a few hours. Therefore, the best way for lions is to eat more and eat more.
△ Lion Hunting
Expert analysis, the lion's choice to live in groups is also related to the pressure of the scavenger. A large prey can not eat a short time, and instead of throwing it to the scavenger, it is better to share it with his relatives. Schaller observed that a group of lionsIn half an hour, a zebra eats only one skeleton. Similarly, tigers sometimes bury their prey, and jaguars never do this, which also reflects the difference in scavenger pressure between the two. Tigers haveScavengers such as wolves, hyenas, bears, vultures, and crows may come to steal meat, and these are hardly found on Jaguar sites.
△ Tiger and its prey: a white-legged bison
To sum up, in terms of feeding habits and hunting behaviors, although the three cats are similar in general, there are many differences. In the final analysis, this is the result of their long-term evolution to adapt to different living environments and dietary structures.
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