Understand the article, where did the Hakkas come from?

2019-12-25 | Earth Knowledge Bureau original |

Unlike nomads, farming civilization places more emphasis on homeland and land. The Chinese have always had the tradition of “relocating and relocating”, and moving has always been a major event.

But there are such a group of people in China. Over the past 1,700 years, they have never stopped migrating, gradually climbing over the mountains, starting from the Central Plains, going south to open up new horizons, and even thousands of miles away.All have their footprint.

This group of people are Chinese Hakkas.

Unlimited rivers and mountains, not easy to see sometimes difficult

Like the Hans in most regions, the ancestors of the Hakkas came from the Heluo area, the birthplace of the Chinese civilization. The fertile land and convenient transportation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River are China ’s earliest agricultural and economic centers. But because of its prosperityRichness makes it difficult to avoid the scourge of soldiers.

After the Yongjia Rebellion in the Western Jin Dynasty, the northern family and Shuxiangmen fled to the southern area around the Jianghuai area to avoid calamities. Historically, it was called “dressing south”. This large migration has brought a lot of labor andAgricultural technology has fully developed the originally barren but undeveloped southern region, and cultural and educational undertakings in the south have also begun to rise, indirectly promoting the first southward shift of China's economic center of gravity.

From the Three Kingdoms to the Western Jin Dynasty and its destruction

In fact, it has only been more than 30 years

More than thirty years, from the western region of Liaodong, all the way back to the Huaihe River

Countless people in the Central Plains have visited Nandu ▼

Zhuyun County, Shuzhou County, Nanqi County: "Nanzhou Prefecture, Zhenguangling Town. When the people suffered, they moved to this place, and the exiles lived in Dubei as their guests. In the Yuan Dynasty, the exiles lost their citizenship, so that the people had a boss.Customer system ".

In the period of Emperor Jin Yuan, the first time the word "off" appeared to refer to immigrants moving from the north to the south. This word is very subtle. On the one hand, the guest is a homage to the visitor; on the other hand, the guest always doesNo, Lord, this side of the landscape has not brought them a real sense of belonging. When the war resumes, they will leave nostalgia and look for a new home again.

From Wuhu Sixteen Countries to North and South Dynasties

The North is no longer just a pure war, but also represents a new order

while the South went from Eastern Jin to Song Qiliang Chen

through it is the endless battle between Tu and Hakkas ▼

The end of the Tang Dynasty was one of the darkest periods in Chinese history. According to the "General Code", on the eve of the Anshi Rebellion, the population of the Tang Dynasty reached 53 million unprecedented in agricultural society, and since then it has entered more than 200 years.War and chaos. When the rulers of the early Song Dynasty had more time to conduct demographics, the cloud was removed, leaving only 16 million and the population dropped sharply by 70%.

Although the Tang Dynasty persisted for a long time after the Anshi Rebellion

but the interior has already fallen into a de facto division

The accompanying civil war has not ceased, and society and the economy have greatly reversed.

During this period, due to the chaos between the towns and villages, it was not just the traditional Central Plains that was affected by the war. The people of Jianghuai also had to continue to move south to the mountainous Fujian and Jiangxi, farther from the large-scale war.

In the Song Dynasty, government books were produced using the special name of “customer”, and the term “Hakka” was a general name for the people. As a result, “Hakka”, a vicissitudes of the Han ethnic group that has always been self-improving, began to take the stage of history.

Afterwards, they also experienced the influence of the chaos in the Song and Yuan dynasties and the Ming and Qing dynasties. The refugees once again enriched the Hakka contingent, but the main body of the Hakkas was indeed fixed before the Song Dynasty. Today, the dialects of the Hakkas retain more of the Northern Song official dialect.Voice intonation is proof.

Because of the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty, the Huaihe River Basin actually lost ground

The Yellow River migrated to the Huaihe River, and it was completely transformed into the Northward Yangtze River migration

The Yangtze River Basin is also the front line of the war, I am afraid that only Lingnan is safe ▼

However, when the Hakkas gradually migrated to the south, they were also affected by the local ethnic minorities, especially the Dai people living in the hills in the southeast. The two peoples merged due to confrontation and absorbed the characteristics of each other's culture and dialects.In recent times, the term “畲 客 本家” has been generated, which has also caused great difficulties in identifying the Wa or Hakkas in the identification of the New Chinese nation.

Today ’s Hakka population is mainly concentrated in northwestern Fujian, southern Jiangxi, and northeastern Guangdong. The area was originally small, and the Wuling, which separates the Pearl River system and the Yangtze river system, exists. The so-called eight mountains and one water fieldIs the area bordering Hunan, Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi where Hakka people live.

Main distribution areas of Hakkas and Dais ▼

But like Hakka ancestors, the Hakkas always have a spirit of hard work, enter the mountains in troubled times to avoid disasters, and are not afraid to walk out of the mountains during the Taiping period. Therefore, the Hakkas are also widely distributed in 17 provinces in China, with more than 180Counties and cities. Therefore, in the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the “Huguang filling Sichuan” is also indispensable for the Hakkas, forming the “Hakka dialect island” on the Sichuan map.

No guest without mountains, no guest without mountains

Mountain environment is the basis for the development of Hakka culture. For them, Wuyi Mountains, Wuling Mountains, Luoxiao Mountains, Qiong Mountains, Caimei Mountains, Boping Mountains, Songmaoling Mountains, Wuling Remains, Xiangshan Mountains,The famous southern mountains such as Yinna Mountain and Phoenix Mountain have long been part of life.

From the Yangtze River Basin to Lingnan and South Fujian

This process turned over countless mountains

Some people stay and settle after every hurdle

This long process has formed the distribution range of Hakkas ▼

High and dense mountains and low rolling hills intersect to form basins of varying sizes. These basins and terraces on gentle slopes are the main source of arable land for Hakkas. In such an environment of scarce resources, inconvenient transportation, and tight arable landIt also gave birth to the unique lifestyle of the Hakkas.

Whether it is flat or hilly, wherever you go

picture from: ic / worm creative ▼

First of all is a unique way of living. Facing the attack of mountain thieves, natives and wild beasts, the Hakkas built Hakka earthen buildings like a fortress. The earthen building is a round fortress made of rammed earth, with defense function as the first priority.There are no windows on the first and second floors close to the ground to prevent entry by enemies and thieves.

Zhangzhou Nanjing-Hakka Tulou

Picture from: Winter Alder / Picture Creativity ▼

The rammed earth wall is extremely thick, able to withstand knife and fire attacks, and even in recent times, it can withstand foreign guns and cannons. The only weak point of the gate is also covered with iron sheet, and a water tank for fire fighting is placed on the door.

outer bunker, used for defense

Photo from: Z Elementary School / Picture Worm Creative ▼

The internal structure of the Tulou reflects another feature of Hakka culture—the strong clan ties. The bird's eye view of the Hakka Tulou from the air is a concentric circle structure with the clan ancestral hall in the middle and the ancestral house in turn., The porch, the outermost is the house.

Inside folk houses, places where people live

Picture from: Marco781 / Picture Worm Creative ▼

The architectural concept of the Hakka Tulou is that the children and grandchildren of the same ancestors unite and unite one's heart and guard against their disgrace. This is not only an orderly inheritance of honor and inferiority in the Central Plains culture, but also the conclusion of a more than 1,700 years of exuberant lifeLessons learned. Survival always comes first, and the most trustworthy person is someone who has a blood relationship with you.

Reunion round, neat and tidy

Picture from: I am Weichen / Tuworm Creative ▼

The xenophobia generated by this cultural influence and the contradictions between people and land that continued to worsen as the population increased caused the locals to fight in the late Qing Dynasty.

It is called a small war. It is a small war. The conflict between the Turkish and Turkish people has lasted for more than ten years, and the number of casualties has not been clearly recorded. Once it was close to one million, it was finally mediated by the Qing authorities, the weapons of both sides were collected, and the guests and the southwestern coast of Guangdong were resettledRegion is the result.

After the painful lesson of bloodshed, Hakkas and Cantonese have finally come to lasting peace and live in harmony in Lingnan. Today, Hakkas in Guangdong also learn more Cantonese, which is slightly different from Guangfu people.

essentially a fortress in the agricultural era

Some were built after the founding of the People's Republic of China

It can be seen that this traditional habit of self-defense continues for a long time

picture from: dreamstime / worm creative ▼

I don't know who I am in the dream

Since modern times, the distribution of Hakkas has further spread.

After the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, in order to avoid war and gain wealth, the Hakkas took the initiative to go to the South Ocean to dig for gold, or they were passively sold to Southeast Asia, South Asia, and even North America in the form of "selling piglets" and "contract labor."Fate is sorrowful, but the Hakkas have always been hardworking, frugal, hardworking and self-improving, and they are looking for life in a difficult environment.

In times of turmoil again in modern times

but this is not the first time

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom is a military and political group that is good at sports, not occupying such a large area at the same time ▼

In 1930, Professor Gu Zhi of Sun Yat-sen University published an article entitled "Hakka Pair", which can be called the Hakka Study Kaishan. In this article, he made an intensive exposition on the character of Hakkas: "Today, with the journey of relocation, I am forced to stay in the Wuling Mountains, and I have never obeyed anyone, and I have the same style as me. Qu Qiang Jie Li, draws a gulf, and always has a long name. "

Just like the lyrics of the Hakka Band Jiulian real people in "Mo Leng Jue Poor", "Pray for God's use, both ancient and ancient, and suffer from Amin, you will definitely be in the limelight, and you will get gold every day!"

Qu Qiangjieli, who does not believe in God or life, only believes in his own hands. The Hakkas combined the tenacity of the Chinese nation with the philosophy of the mountains to create their own legends.

On the other hand, the Hakkas' respect for culture and education is also an important reason for the emergence of talents.

Difficult conditions in the mountains, but the Hakkas will never give up reading. Unlike the customs of the Guangfu and Chaoshan people who value business, Hakka dialects have the proverb "No poetry, no eyes". In order to protect future generations,In the study, the elders of the clan often regarded the management of private children as a major event, and required the ancestor Tanaka to allocate a sum of rice to pay Mr. private school's teaching salaries. Which clan found out that there were sharp children who read, and the entire family would automatically send money to send him to school.

The building function may be a defensive fortress

However, the essence of its sociology is a small autonomous community

and make up for the lack of scale with concentrated organizational capabilities

Photo from: Qiangqi Shao / Piworm Creativity ▼

Because of the importance attached to education and reading, Hakkas have seen many outstanding figures in the fields of culture, education, science, etc. from the end of Qing Dynasty to 1985. There were only 73 counties in Meixian County studying abroad.155 professors at home and abroad, and 141 associate professors, can be said to be the group with the most solid experience of studying abroad in that era.

They still continue this legend after the founding of the People ’s Republic of China. At the time, there were 21 members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Member of the Academy in Guangdong and 10 in Meizhou. By now, among the members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Meizhou is moreThere are more than 20 people.

Although the economy is backward, learning can change your destiny. So many elite figures have emerged in Hakka, which is impressive.

Also all immigrants, the Jinshan people went west, brought their dialects and culture to western Inner Mongolia, merged into the vast wasteland, and became "Inner Mongolians"; the Jilu people broke through the Guandong and formed a new culture outside the GuanAgree, establish a new home between Baishan and Heishui, calling himself "the Northeast."

Only Hakkas, they conquered the mountains and crossed the sea to find a place to stay, but they always called themselves Hakkas.

Because they remember that although they are wandering, they have their own roots. Now the land under their feet is only borrowed, and the Central Plains homeland is the home to look north anyway.

References :

"Tradition of the Bloodline Inheritance: Seeing the Migration of Hakkas from" Huguang Fills Sichuan ", Jiang Xue

"The Definition, Origin and Distribution of Hakka People", Huang Huoxing

"Analysis of the Influence of Geographical Environment on the Cultural Character of Hakka People", Qian Wei

"Review and Prospect of Hakka History Research", Zhong Junkun

* The content of this article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of the Bureau of Earth Knowledge

Cover image from: Large aperture 595 / Picture insect creative


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