"Christmas" Jesus below: Jesus in the "Three Kings Worship" is a bit skinny
Ding Ding Dong, Ding Ding Dong ~ ~ ~ Christmas is here, come and admire a timeless masterpiece related to the birth of Jesus. This is the painting of the leader of the Italian Gothic painter Fabriano-the most charmingGothic Flower & Luxurious Work "Three Kings' Worship": Jesus was born, everyone worshiped, fled to Egypt ... the story is inside and outside the painting. Masterpieces of various Gothic styles will make you feast your eyes on the pastDifferent Christmas!
Writing | Zhang Huan
Continued from the first part
3, Para Stroch
Pala Strozzi, patron of this painting May 8, 1372-May 1462 also painted himself in the painting the first figure on the right of Figure 1p.The appearance of the hawktor is stroziere in Italian, which is used here to refer to the surname Strozzi; the man with the red hat on his left is his eldest son Lorenzo. Another explanation is that with a red hatThe young man is Para Stroch, and the elder standing to his right is his father Onofrio Stozzi, but the author thinks this interpretation is not correct. It is the same as Para Stroch's age.No. We can corroborate the portrait of Fra Angelico in the painting for patron Strozzi more than ten years later Figure 1q.
Figure 1p. Para Stroch and his son Lorenzo Stroz, "Three Kings Worship" detail | Image source: Wikipedia
Picture 1q. Forra Angelique, portrait of Para Stroch, taken from "Removing the Remains of Jesus to the Cross", painted from 1432 to 1434, and now on display in the church of San Marco in Florence | PicturesSource: Wikipedia
Para Stroch is a knight of the Order of the Golden Spur of the Holy See. The Paladin is a non-hereditary noble group of the Papal State that originated in the Middle Ages.The members were able to obtain the seal mainly because of their contributions to society, especially the church. This number was considered to be the highest honor of the Papal State at the time. Although the sealee was regarded as a nobleman and the Order of the Knights could also be passed to him.Offspring and future generations, but their titles cannot be hereditary. This knight organization strictly limits its members and only allows up to 100 people at the same time, so generally new members are blocked after members die. In historyAmong the famous people who have been sealed are several great artists, including Raphael, Titian, Vasari, Mozart, etc. In the painting "Three Kings Worship" we saw the pair of orders worn by young kings.The eye-catching Golden Spurs may be a metaphor for this identity.
It is also worth noting that Para Stroch was once listed as the richest man in Florence in the 1427 census, but he is a banker who is not interested in his business. In fact, he should be moreA philosopher, educator, enthusiast of ancient Greek culture, collector of ancient books and patron of art. This aristocratic humanist and Cosimo di Giovanni de 'Medici,il Vecchio September 27, 1389-August 1, 1464 has a good personal relationship, but he is also a politician who firmly believes in republicanism. With the growing power of the Medici family, becauseFearing that the old leader of the Medici family, Cosimo, would become a dictator, Para Stroch and Rinaldo degli Albizzi 1370-1442 worked together from 1433 to 1434.Leaded a coup against the old Cosimo de Medici. Although initially they successfully imprisoned and exiled Cosimo, the latter successfully returned to Florence with public support a year later, and the struggle ended in failure.LeadStrochi was exiled to Padua and never returned to Florence for life. He had planned to donate his collection to build a public library, a plan that failed because he failed to return to Florence during his lifetime.achieve.
4. Brief introduction of painter Fabriano and his art works
Gentile da Fabriano circa 1370–1427, real name Gentile di Niccolò di Giovanni di Massio is an Italian painter, an international Gothic artist of the early 15th centuryOne of the most important representatives. Because he was born in Fabriano, Italy, people would prefer to call him by the name of his hometown. We are not sure about his early education and artistic career, but he used toCreative work has been done in many places, including frescoes for the Palazzo Ducale, but these works have been lost.
From about 1410, Fabriano entered the golden age of artistic creation. From 1410 to 1412, he painted the famous "Mother's Coronation Multi-Screen" also known as "Romita Valley Multi-Screen"., Valle Romita Polyptych Figure 2, this work is now the treasure of the town hall of the Pinacoteca di Brera, one of the most important art museums in Italy. Although this multi-screen was demolished in the 18th centuryMany small paintings were sold in different places, but from 1811 to 1901 Brera Gallery bought small paintings scattered all over the place. They later re-made the Gothic picture frame we currently see. Maybe someSome details have been lost, but it is still an extremely luxurious and elegant Gothic painting.
Fig. 2. Fabriano, "Cross of the Virgin", also known as "Multi-Screen of the Romita Valley", wood tempera and gold painting, 1410-1212, 280 cm high, 250 cm wide, Now on display at the Brera Gallery in Milan, Italy | Image source: Wikipedia
About 1420, Fabriano painted a highly decorative double-sided painting for the San Francesco Monastery in his home city, with the Virgin crowned on the front Figure 3, And the back is Stimmate di san Francesco see Figure 3a. Now this double-sided painting has been separated and displayed on the front at the Getty Center in California.Exhibited at the Magnani-Rocca Foundation in Traversetolo, Italy
Fig. 3. Fabriano, "The Coronation of the Virgin", wooden tempera and gold painting, circa 1420, 87.6 cm high, 64.7 cm wide, now on display at Getty Center in California, USA | Image source:Wikipedia
Figure 3a. Fabriano, "God to San Francesco's Appearance", wooden tempera and gold painting, circa 1420, 89 cm high, 65 cm wide, now on display in Traverse, ItalyMagnani-Roka Foundation in Tolo | Image credit: Wikipedia
Although Fabriano's paintings that we usually see or introduce in art history books are brilliant and luxurious international Gothic paintings, which have a strong medieval traditional court style, people usually ignore them.He is a humanist painter who knows its essence. Fabrian worked in Foligno from 1410 to 1411, where he worked for the aristocratic mansion in the city's Palace, Lynch.The Great Hall of the Great Sala dei Giganti, Palazzo Trinci painted a series of wet frescoes. He was under the direction of the humanist scholar Francesco da Fiano circa 1350-1421 under FlorenceThe long epic poem "Africa" by Francesco Petrarca July 20, 1304 – July 18 or 19, 1374 and the unfinished "De viris illustribus" comePaintings. This book by Peterlack covers a series of Roman greats from the time of Romulus in Rome to the time of Trajan the Great of the Roman Empire. Interestingly,In this work, the author also enthusiastically sang several great men of the Mediterranean at that time, such as Alexander the Great July 20 or 21, 356 BC – June 10 or 11, 323 BC, Pyrrhus of Epirus 319 or 318 BC – 272 BC and Hannibal Barca 247 BC – between 183 BC and 181 BC, etc., among whichThe last two were the most powerful enemies ever faced in Rome's history. It was because of the defeat of the great enemies that Rome became even more great. Unfortunately, this series of murals by Fabriano was not well maintained.It has been destroyed a lot Figure 4, and it is difficult to see its full appearance. We only briefly introduce a few remaining portraits of ancient Roman greats. The reader can easily see that although his works also belong to the Gothic style,These portraits fully reflect the resolute and rustic personality peculiar to the national elites of the ancient Roman Republic.
Figure 4. Hall of the Great in Trinco Palace, Foligno, Italy Image source: Wikipedia
Quintus Cincinnatus 519 BC-430 BC in Figure 4a below was an early aristocrat, politician, and military strategist of the Roman Republic. In 458 BC and 439 BCAt the critical moment in Rome, he was twice recommended as a six-month dictator due to his strong leadership, and he could take over power and have king-like power. But when the crisis ended, he always immediately put down his scepter and returnedIn his own country farm, he lived a simple life again. Especially in 458 BC, he led the Roman army as a dictator and defeated the invasion of foreign enemies. He immediately returned to power and stayed in the position of dictator.15 days. With super power but never greedy power, this is interpreted as an important virtue of Roman Republic and later Republicanism, and Cincinnati is a typical representative of this virtue.
Figure 4a. Fabriano, "Portrait of Cincinnati", wet fresco, painted from 1410 to 1411, now displayed in the Great Hall of the Trinity Palace in Foligno, Italy | Image source: Wikipedia
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus 236 BC-183 BC in Figure 4b is a Roman national salvation hero. Africanus is a name given to him by all Romans, meaning to conquer AfricaAt the most difficult time in the Second Punic War, at the age of 24, he took the initiative to ask him to be appointed as the commander-in-chief of a Roman side and led the two legions to Spain to open the second battlefield and achieved a brilliant record.His victory in Spain was the first substantial victory that Rome achieved during the Second Punic War. At the age of 29, at his own request and with the strong support of the Roman Citizens' Assembly, he was once again exceptionally elected as governingOfficer, this is the chief executive of Rome. In principle, he must be a person over 40 years of age. Noah was undoubtedly elected because of his military merits. When he was in office, he led the volunteer army to land in North Africa and fight in the Zama later.In one fell swoop, he defeated the great Hannibal, and the second Punic war ended with the victory of Rome. Xizia is a symbol of Roman youth.The system did not resolutely reject the sent crown twice; as a Roman nobleman from Wangmen, he joined the army and fought the Quartet at the age of 17, but he was also an admirer and learner of advanced Greek culture at the time; He is humble, peaceful, charismatic, elegant and decent, and has universal respect from his enemies, including Hannibal.
Fig. 4b. Fabriano, "Portrait of Zia Affiliganius", wet fresco, painted from 1410 to 1411, now displayed in the Great Hall of the Trinity Palace in Foligno, Italy | Image source:Wikipedia
1420 to 1425, Fabriano came to Florence and was commissioned by Para Stroch to create this highly decorative and influential "Three Kings Worship" in Florence.Because of the influence of humanism, the artist inserted a scene of violent plundering of the people against the feudal dictatorship in this work.
5, simple conclusion
From the perspective of Renaissance art in a narrow sense, Fabriano's "Three Kings' Worship" is obviously a Gothic work. It is the masterpiece of traditional medieval art that reached its peak in the early 15th century.In less than ten years after the completion of this work, a series of paintings by Massaccio such as the fresco "Tax Payment" Figure 5, etc. were born in Florence. This new naturalism and scienceThe combination of doctrine and painting style will become the mainstream Renaissance creative method and gradually swept the entire Italy including Florence. Nevertheless, the 15th century Renaissance Florentine painters will be irresistible for nearly half a century after thatFabriano's "Three Kings 'Worship" showcases the elegance and beauty of the temptation. They will continuously draw nutrients from it. After drawing this "Three Kings' Worship" in Fabriano, it was created around 1470For new works of the same or similar subject matter and design, we will list a few such famous paintings without much explanation below to end this article.
Figure 5. Massaccio, "Tax Payment", wet fresco, painted from 1425 to 1428, 247 cm wide and 597 cm high, now on display in the Chapel of Blancaci in the Basilica of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence | Image source:Wikipedia
In the different paintings of three famous 15th-century Florence painters painted in Figures 6, 7, and 9, the painters basically mirror and map Fabriano's "Three Kings" by mirror mapping.The above is slightly adjusted to design the overall layout of the picture, and Figure 8 is a part of the pilgrimage procession with Jin Yihua in the fresco in the chapel in the Medici Palace. The painting of the entire chapel should obviouslyThe refinement of the pilgrimage procession in Three Kings, although the direct thought of the painter Benozzo Gozzoli may have drawn more from his teachers Fra Angelico and Filippo LeighThree Kings' Worship by Filippo Lippi.
Figure 6. Domenico Veneziano, The Three Kings' Worship, 1439-1441, tempera on a wooden board, 84 cm in diameter, now on display at the National Museum in Berlin, Germany | Image source:Wikipedia
Figure 7. Forra Angelique and Filippo Lippi, "Three Kings' Worship", tempera on wooden boards, made between 1440 and 1460, 137.3 cm in diameter, now on display in National Art, Washington, DC, USAGallery | Image credit: Wikipedia
Figure 8. Gozzoli, "The Pilgrimage Road", wet fresco, 1459-1462, 405 cm high and 516 cm wide, now displayed in the small chapel in the Medici-Ricci Palace in Florence | Image source:Wikipedia
Picture 9. Botticelli, Three Kings' Worship, tempera on wooden boards, circa 1470, 50 cm high, 136 cm wide, now on display at the National Gallery, London, UK | Image source: Wikipedia
Since the beginning of the 1470s, when Lorenzo, the luxury man, began to take power in Florence, Florentine painters Botticelli, Da Vinci, Gillando, and Philippino Lippi, etc.The "Creation of the King" has made considerable changes in the overall design of the picture see Figure 10, Figure 11, Figure 12, Figure 13, Figure 14 and Figure 15. All these painters can be said to be the great Florence artists andAn educator of the art educator Andrea del Verrocchio circa 1435–1488. These disciples and disciples of Verrocchio motivated each other to compete and learn from each other in painting.Features, but there are common characteristics in design, for example, the buildings behind the main characters in the front of the screen are placed at the center of the screen; at the same time, the positions of the Virgin and the baby are moved to the center of the screen.The idea came from the three screens of St. Columbus, drawn by the northern Dutch painter Rogier van der Weyden circa 1399 or 1400-June 18, 1464.Also known as "St. Columba Altarpiece", Saint Columba Altarpiece in the middle screen "Three Kings worship," the painting Figure 16 and Figure 16a.
Figure 10. Botticelli, Three Kings' Worship, tempera on wooden boards, completed around 1475, 111 cm high and 134 cm wide, now on display at the Uffizi Museum | Image source: Wikipedia
Picture 11. Botticelli, Three Kings' Prayer, tempera on wooden boards, circa 1478-1482, 68 cm high and 102 cm wide, now on display at the Uffizi Museum | Image source: Wikipedia
Figure 13. Dominique Gilandayo, "Three Kings' Circle Painting", tempera on wooden boards, painted in 1487, 172 cm in diameter, now on display at the Uffizi Museum | Image source: Wikipedia
Figure 14. Dominique Gilandayo, "Three Kings' Worship", tempera on wooden boards, 1488, 285 cm high, 240 cm wide, now on display at the Orphanage Museum of Florence Spedale degli Innocenti, FlorenceImage source: Wikipedia
Figure 15. Philippino Lippi, "Three Kings' Worship", oil painting on wood, completed in 1496, 258 cm high, 243 cm wide, now on display at the Uffizi Museum in Florence, Italy | Image source: Wikipedia
Figure 16. Rochelle van der Weyden, "Three Kings' Worship", oil painting on wood, circa 1455, 138 cm high, 153 cm wide, now on display at the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, Germany |Image source: Wikipedia
Figure 16a. Rothschild van der Weyden, Three Screens of St. Columbus, oil painting on wood, circa 1455, now displayed in the Old Paintings Gallery in Munich, Germany | Image source: Wikipedia
The author read a phrase in a leisure book in high school that George Vasari said in "The Legend of the Artistic Garden": "The era of the ruler of Lorenzo de Medici isThe golden age of the wise men. "The work of Botticelli shown in Figure 10 is undoubtedly an interpretation of this sentence. In the painting, the kings worshipping the Son Jesus kneeled on the sides of the Virgin and Jesus.They are actually important figures in the Medici family in reality. Except for Da Vinci's work, it is difficult to see the real picture in the painter's intention because it is unfinished.The characters in the costumes are obviously dressed in costumes, and people will immediately feel the gorgeous luxury of the picture.
Florence people like luxury. Even today, if you are willing to observe carefully, you will often see many men and women in gorgeous clothes walking around the street in Florence. I remember seeing for the first time from New York to Florence, seeMany men and women on the streets of Florence wore beautiful and luxurious outfits, and suddenly felt that New York's fashion is more rustic, although people in the world can no longer reject the influence of the United States in the fashion industry. If you go back to the 15th century, Florence peopleThe parades or competitions held in festivals and festivals give people a sense of top luxury and prosperity. Our readers can easily read many of them in French Philosophy of Art, which is translated by Mr. Fu Lei.The description of this luxurious scene. It is this desire for luxurious scenes that resides deep in the soul and flows in the blood, which has made Fabriano and later Florence's many "Three Kings Worship" in hundreds of painters.Has been a treasure of art in Florence for many years. No matter how the trend and fashion of art changesUntil today they are still the pride of Florence, but also the world's most beautiful memories of the golden age of 15th-century Florence.
Zhang Ye, mathematician, logician, consultant of the Department of Watches and Ancient Musical Instruments of the Russian Hermitage Museum, consultant of the French Pendulum Clock Gallery, consultant of the Guangdong Province Watch Collection Research Professional Committee.
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