Did DeBroglie's Navigation Wave Theory Revive?
In 1927, the 5th Solvay International Conference was held. De Broglie proposed a "navigation wave" theory, that is, each particle has a deterministic spatial position or trajectory, which is described by a navigation wave function. ConferenceAfter the end, De Broglie's navigation wave theory was gradually forgotten by the physics community. In 2005, the fluid bouncing oil droplet experiment and the "double slit experiment" of Yves Couday, a fluid physicist at the University of Diderot in Paris,Resurrected De Broglie's navigation wave theory, but was soon overthrown by Thomas Bohr of the Danish Technical University. But De Broglie's followers have not given up, and they are still searching today.
Writing | Chen Guanrong Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong
Responsible Editor | Liu Zhiyuan
01, the birth of navigation wave theory
Louis Victor Pierre Raymond duc de Broglie, a diplomatic and political family born in Dieppe, northern France Figure 1. At the age of 14, he was the fifth in his family.Victor 5th duc de Broglie passed away. His mother Pauline d'Armaillé and her 6th generation duke's brother Maurice Maurice, 6th duc de Broglie sent him to Paris.Lycée Janson de Sailly, the best aristocratic middle school. De Broglie was in the middle school, and his French, history, physics, and philosophical achievements were among the best. After graduating from high school in 1909, he entered the first-rate French Sorbonne University Sorbonne Université, The school's famous alumni include Pierre and Marie Curie.
Figure 1 Louis De Broglie 1892-1987
Probably because De Broglie is good at various subjects, De Broglie, who is studying in the university, does not know what subjects he should major in. He first chose history, and later switched to law. 1911, His physicist brother Morris took him to attend the first Solvay International Conference in Brussels, Belgium, where he met Einstein, Madame Curie and Henry Poincaré JulesHenri Poincaré, became very interested in physics, and transferred to theoretical physics after returning to school. In 1913, he graduated from Sorbonne with two bachelor's degrees in literature and science.
The following year, the outbreak of World War I. DeBro realized the service of the Army and began to work as an engineer in a military fortress, then transferred to the radio department under the Eiffel Tower in Paris. In 1918, for the first timeAfter the end of the World War, De Broglie retired. He returned to Sorbonne University to continue to study and study theoretical physics under Paul Langevin. At that time, his brother Morris was studying X-rays.Spectral and photoelectric effects often took him to work in his laboratory. Later, the two brothers published a paper on optics.
1924, 32-year-old De Broglie completed his doctoral dissertation "Research on Quantum Theory", and the full text was published next year in the "Journal of Physics."It is a study of the "wave-particle duality" of light waves. A new theory of wave properties of electrons was proposed, which extended Einstein's theory from light to matter, ie, the wave-particle duality of matter particles.
Tutor Lang Zhiwan was not very sure about the correctness of De Broglie's new theory, so he sent De Broglie's dissertation to Einstein for comments. Einstein wrote a short reply excitedly, Praised: "He raised a corner of the huge curtain!" Einstein recommended the paper to the Berlin Academy of Sciences, so this new theory soon spread widely to the physics community. Inspired by this paper, Erwin in 1926· Erwin Schr? Dinger wrote the Schrödinger equation that is familiar today. The famous electronic experiments of Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer in 1927, and George Thomson in 1928 George Thomson Another experiment that has verified De Broglie's theory of electron waves.
1926-1927, from a different perspective, Max Born made a probabilistic explanation of Schrodinger's equation, and Werner Heisenberg proposed the "uncertainty principle", explainingIt is not possible to accurately measure both the momentum and the position of a particle.
In 1927, the 5th Solvay International Conference was held again in Brussels, with the theme "Electronics and Photons", to discuss emerging quantum theory Figure 2. This is the most widely known academic conference in two different schools.The famous Bohr-Einstein debate took place. Madam Curie was the only female scientist, and 17 of the 29 participants won the Nobel Prize.
Figure 2 The fifth Solvay conference photo, De Broglie is in the second row and the third right
Danish physicist Niels Bohr proposed the “Copenhagen interpretation” of quantum mechanics standards, claiming that everything was “unreal” before being observed on a quantum scale. He believes that the position of the particlesIt is not deterministic, but random, determined by the probability wave function; at the moment of measurement, the wave function collapses to a point, and the particle leap to this point, and its position becomes "reality" at this moment.
Einstein opposes Bohr and Heisenberg's "Uncertainty Principle" with the view that "God will not roll the dice". Bohr countered: "Mr. Einstein, please don't tell GodHow to do it. "In this debate, De Broglie naturally stood by Einstein. He also proposed a" pilot-wave "theory, that is, each particle has a deterministic spatial positionOr the trajectory is described by the navigation wave function. However, Wolfgang Pauli, who supports Bohr, pointed out at the conference that the theory of navigation waves cannot explain inelastic scattering, and therefore cannot explain the physical nature behind the navigation waves.At the end of the conference, the Bohr School prevailed with their revolutionary theory. Since then, De Broglie's theory of navigation waves has gradually been forgotten by the physics community.
The Nobel Prize in Physics in 1929 was awarded to De Broglie, who had graduated with a doctoral degree less than 5 years, in recognition of his "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons."The eulogy says: "At such a young age, you are caught in the debate about the deepest issues in physics. Without any evidence to support it, you have the courage to assert that matter is not only particulate but also volatile. Later experiments confirmed your point. "
De Broglie began teaching theoretical physics at Sorbonne University in 1928, then worked at the Institut Henri Poincaré, and after 1932 he worked as a theoretical physics at the University of Paris Université de Paris.The professor retired at the age of 70 in 1962. According to incomplete statistics, he published 150 academic papers and 25 books throughout his life.
In terms of academic honors, De Broglie was elected as an academician of the French Academy of Sciences Académie des Sciences in 1933. In 1942 he became the standing secretary of the Academy of Sciences, responsible for allocating administrative tasks, reporting the annual results of the Academy of Sciences, writing the deceased academician, etc.Served until 1975. In 1944, he was elected chief academician of the Académie Française. The French Academy was the oldest and most famous academic authority in France founded in 1635. During his life, he was successively recognized by Europe, the United States18 national academies of science such as India and India were selected as foreign academicians. De Broglie has won many important awards, especially the Henry Poincaré Award first awarded by the French Academy of Sciences in 1929, and Max Planck of the German Physical Society in 1938 Max Planck award, the Kalinga Prize of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1952, the gold medal of the French National Centre for Scientific Research in 1956, and the Grand Cross of the French Legion of Honour in 1961 Légion d'honneur, etc.He has also been warsaw, bucharest, athens, los angeles, quebec, and brusselsThe university awards an honorary doctorate.
In terms of academic activities, De Broglie also served as a senior consultant of the French Atomic Energy Commission in 1945, and established the Engineering Mechanics Center at the Henri Poincaré Institute. His long-term efforts have also contributed to the famous International Academy of Quantum and Molecular Sciences IAQMSFounded and became the first core members. In 1950, based on the dynamic causality theory of De Broglie wave, David Bohm introduced the concept of quantum potential to establish the famous De Broglie-The Bohm theory is currently the only theory that can give a description of the physical state of matter waves and provide a reasonable explanation for some quantum mechanical predictions. De Broglie-Bohm theory is also a classic chaos theory and quantum chaos quantum chaos The unification of theories provides the basic framework De Broglie-Bohm phase space in quantum mechanics.
In 1960, De Broglie's brother Morris died, he became the 7th Duke de Broglie. De Broglie was never married, never had a private car, and lived in a civilian hut all his life.He is a simple gentleman. He is polite and never loses his temper. He is a typical gentleman and scholar. Perhaps because of this, he has a long and healthy life. He was 95 years old on March 19, 1987.Louveciennes passes away on the outskirts of Paris.
02, Revival of Navigation Wave Theory
History has never been easy to withdraw from the stage. Although the theory of navigation waves proposed by De Broglie at the 5th Solvay International Conference in 1927 is gradually forgotten, it is not a zombie.
In 2005, a team led by Yves Couder, a fluid physicist at the University of Diderot in Paris, accidentally performed a "bouncing-droplet" experiment and discovered a possible subversion of glass.Phenomenon of quantum mechanics theory: When a small oil drop falls on the surface of a vibrating oil layer, it will bounce up and down, and can pass through obstacles, which is a good interpretation of some confusing quantum phenomena. They found that bouncing oil droplets surround the oilWhen the center rotates, it only moves along certain "quantized" orbits, and sometimes bounces to another quantum orbit, which is very similar to the movement of electrons in the nucleus. Couday realized that this verified De BroglieProposed Navigation Wave Theory! Later, Couday and Emmanuel Fort collaborated to conduct a more precise "doubleslit experiment." Many physicists were very optimistic about such experiments. ReasonRichard Feynman said that the double-slit experiment "contains all the essence of quantum mechanics and hides the ultimate laws of quantum mechanics."After recording the trajectory of 75 bouncing oil droplets through the double slits, it is claimed that interference-like fringes were observed at the drop of the oil droplets, and this seems to be only derived from the navigation wave.
Then, De Broglie ’s navigation wave theory was revived, and De Broglie ’s followers were excited for 10 years. During this time, physicists of both factions carried out a series ofRelated experiments. The team of MIT fluid dynamics scientist John Bush, the Technical University of Denmark Tomas Bohr, and Arnos Arnossen Anders Andersen's team, and the University of Nebraska's quantum physicist Herman Batelaan's team both did some pretty perfect experiments, but none were observedKudai what they call interference fringes. Among them, John Bush and his research team aimed to elucidate the subtle navigation wave dynamics of bouncing oil droplets and try to make a reasonable explanation for their quantum-like behavior. They obtained vertical vibrationsThe theoretical result of the rebound of oil droplets on the fluid bath, the integral differential equation of its motion is established, and it is observed that the state of the oil droplet bounces through the double line almost straightly after passing through the supercritical bifurcation.The seam did not see streaks. Interestingly, they saw the movement of the oil droplets change from unstable to stable, verifying the chaotic dynamic behavior of the oil droplets while walking in complex geometries. Hermann BayTran's team measured electron diffraction from the grating and recorded a double-slit diffraction pattern, demonstrating the macrowave-particle duality of bouncing oil droplets. He also tried to describe the quantum mechanics of individual events in a certain way. Thomas· The research team of Bohr and Annos Annossen published the best comprehensive experimental report in 2015, with very convincing results that there were key errors in the experiments of Couday and his team,The reason is due to the noise that should not be ignored during the experiment, the use of incorrect methods and insufficient statistical data.
Interestingly, the main person who published this report to overthrow De Broglie's theory-Thomas Bohr of the Technical University of Denmark-is the grandson of Niels Bohr Figure 3, Figure 4.
Figure 3 Photo of Thomas Bohr and his grandfather Niels Bohr
Figure 4 Three generations of Boer's grandchildren | Source: Niels Bohr Archives
"I was particularly curious to know if I could get a deterministic quantum mechanics theory." Considering his position in the Bohr family, Thomas emphasized: "Maybe it is with a sense of responsibility that I feel I haveObligation to witness the end result. "
Of course, De Broglie's followers have not given up-they are still on the road today.
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 Bohr T, Andersen AP, Lautrup B. Bouncing droplets, pilot-waves, and quantum mechanics [M]. Berlin: Springer, 2016: 335-349.
Chen Guanrong, Professor of the Department of Electrical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, with research interests in complex networks and nonlinear dynamic systems.
This article is reproduced with permission from Science and Technology Herald, Issue 22, 2019, and the original title is "De Broglie and its Navigation Wave Theory."
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