# What are the top ten mathematical breakthroughs in 2019?

From answering ancient questions to discovering new innovations, these are the math highlights of the year.

In 2019, there seem to be many mainstream moments in mathematics-and this does not include the viral problems that led us to want to get out of the dilemma [2]. This year, we have seen a steady stream of problems that have puzzled mathematicians for decadesOr at least part of the answer, and new technologies have also attracted our great attention. Here are the most important rankings of this year and the ideas behind them.

1.Research progress of Riemann hypothesis

The Riemann hypothesis is generally considered to be the largest unsolved problem in current mathematics. It has been involved in the nature of prime numbers since its inception in 1859 and is linked to many other branches of mathematics. This year researchers have proven [3] someSomething that is directly related to the Riemann hypothesis. Their proof is both insightful and solves big problems and is fascinating.

2, the sum of three cubes

This is some serious ancient mathematics. The Diophantine equation is named after the Diophantine diagram of the 3rd-century mathematician Alexander City. It was not until 2019 that mathematicians avoided two special Diophantine equations, including this photoThe equations seen in this. The breakthrough [4] was achieved with the latest technology sharing computer functions.

3, Curaz's conjecture

The biggest open problem in mathematics this year is close to the solution [5]. The improved results published by prolific mathematician Tao Zhexuan shocked the mathematics community. Even after Dr. Tao ’s latest insights, the problem has not been solved, andIt may still take years to resolve.

4.Sensitivity guess

The sensitivity conjecture was raised in 1994 and has become a major unsolved problem in mathematical computer science. By the end of this year [6], this is thanks to Huang Hao, an assistant professor at Emory University http: //www.mathcs.emory.edu / ~ hhuan30 /. In the weeks after the initial announcement, scientists digested Dr. Huang ’s certificate into a glorious page [7].

5, a brilliant year for cancer research

Mathematicians are always looking for ways to help fight cancer. This year started with a collaboration between mathematicians and biologists [8]. Innovative mathematical modeling helps guide their cell growth experiments. Then this research[9] This study used mathematical models to gain new insights into how breast cancer metastases.

6.Mathematical paper cutting

Kirigami means "paper-cut", not as well-known as origami "origami", but both have found their own applications in industrial applications. Researchers at Harvard University this year mastered the mathematical principles of [10] paper-cuts, clarifyingOpened up new areas of manufacturing and materials science.

7.Sunflower conjecture

After decades of inactivity, progress has been made on the sunflower conjecture in 2019, a question raised by Paul Edos in 1960, one of the most famous and colorful figures in the mathematical world. NewInformation [11] is a great improvement over previous knowledge, but still cannot fully answer the original question of Itoss.

8.Breakthrough of Ramsay's theory

In Ramsey's theory, mathematicians look for predictable patterns in a lot of confusion. A question in 1969 was finally answered this year, and researchers used a metaphor to describe it: "The award-winning lottery [12]. "

9, new quadratic formula

Professor Luo Boshen of Carnegie Mellon University has made waves this year, which promotes another method of solving quadratic equations. Luo Boshen pointed out that the mathematics he has used has been for hundreds of years, but hisThe description method is novel and may be favored by a new generation of students learning quadratic equations.

10, the coolest mathematician is finally crowned

Dr. Karen Uhlenbeck was awarded the Abel Prize for outstanding work for decades [13], which is one of the highest honors in mathematics. Dr. Uhlenbeck has invented enough mathematical methods toReally filled the book. Her name is most important in advanced mathematical disciplines such as geometric analysis and measurement.

Original | Popular Mechanics [1]

Translation | Jiang Xun

Reference [1] http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/math/g30346822/biggest-math-breakthroughs-2019/

[2] http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/math/a28569610/viral-math-problem-2019-solved/

[3] http://mathscholar.org/2019/05/mathematicians-prove-result-tied-to-the-riemann-hypothesis/

[4] http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/math/a28943849/unsolvable-math-problem/

[5] http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/math/a29033918/math-riddle-collatz-conjecture/

[6] http://phys.org/news/2019-07-mathematician-proof-sensitivity-conjecture.html

[7] http://www.cs.stanford.edu/%7Eknuth/papers/huang.pdf

[8] http://elifesciences.org/articles/38407

[9] http://www.bidmc.org/about-bidmc/news/2019/07/crunching-the-numbers-of-cancer-metastasis

[10] http://www.seas.harvard.edu/news/2019/08/shape-shifting-sheets

[11] http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/math/a29579746/sunflower-math-problem/

[12] http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/09/190909104534.htm

[13] Abel Prize: http://www.ams.org/journals/notices/201906/rnoti-p939.pdf?utm_source=Informz&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=08-Notices%20of%20the%20AMS%20-%20June% 2FJuly% 202019-06-18

This article is reprinted with permission from the public account "Hele Math".

Special reminder

"Return to Park", a good science popularized by scientists. Wen Xiaogang, an internationally renowned physicist, and Yan Ning, a biologist, serve as editor-in-chief, together with dozens of top-notch scholars in different fields, and together with youAsk for it. Follow "Return to Park" to participate in more discussions. For reprint or cooperation, please contact the back to the public account backstage.

Special statement

This article is uploaded and published by the media, authors, etc. on Baidu Know Daily. It only represents the author ’s point of view, and does not mean that Baidu knows the views or positions of the daily newspaper. It is known that the daily newspaper only provides an information publishing platform. For cooperation and contributions, please contact zdribao@baidu.com.