Why do n’t Vietnamese hate the United States?

Why don't Vietnamese hate the United States?

For more than forty years, the US-Vietnam relationship has experienced a "hot war", a "cold war", and even recent "handshake cooperation."Vietnam is constantly divided on issues such as immigration and aftermath of war.

It can be said that the shadow of the Vietnam War has been affecting the relationship between the United States and Vietnam for many years. But for the Vietnamese people, the Vietnam War seems to be too far away.

"It's strange that Vietnamese people really like Americans. They come from the heart, but it makes me confused." David Clark, a retired US marine, told the media, "They know you are a Vietnam veteran.At that time, you will also be invited to dinner. People from the whole village will show up, as if you are a VIP. "

"What do Vietnamese think of Americans?"

There is such a problem on Quora in the "U.S. version". The background of the problem is obviously related to the bitter war between Vietnam and the United States.

In March 1965, the leading U.S. troops landed in Vietnam from Da Nang and started the 15-year Vietnam War. The U.S. forces invested twice the amount of ammunition consumed during World War II and bombed Vietnam, almost exploding Vietnam. The war led toMore than 1.6 million Vietnamese died, leaving more than 1 million widows and more than 200,000 disabled people after the war. The US military also killed or disappeared 58,000 people.

U.S. Military agents throwing "Orange Agents" mainly take off from Da Nang, spraying millions of gallons of "Orange Agents" into the jungles of the surrounding areas to destroy the Vietnamese army's hiding place in the jungle. "Orange Agents" are commonly known as deciduous agents.Contains highly toxic substances such as "dioxins." Its catastrophic effects have not completely dissipated to this day.

According to the official statistics of Vietnam, the "orange agent" harms the health of millions of Vietnamese, causing them to suffer from cancer, diabetes, etc., including at least 150,000 babies born with various physical defects. The hatred left by the war and theThe trauma is difficult to clear in the hearts of the people of the two countries.

However, Vietnamese netizens on Quora answered this question calmly and peacefully: "I admire Americans, and I think they are kind, cheerful, and interesting people"; "Views of Americans isPositive combination of praise and fascination ";" Vietnamese loves Americans and American culture as a whole. In my life, I have never seen anyone who is hostile to Americans ... when I said I wanted to study in Finland, Most people, at least the parents ’generation, ask me why I do n’t go to the United States? In their eyes, the United States is the best."

Even if you go to Vietnam to ask the locals, the answer is very similar. This country that was bombed by the United States to the scarred country no longer seems to hate their former enemies.

"Peace, everyone can be friends"

Lao Jin, born in 1974, caught up with the "tail" of the Vietnam War. Lao Jin's home was in Hai Duong, Hai Duong, Vietnam, only 40 kilometers from Hai Phong, the largest port in northern Vietnam. In the late period of the Vietnam War, he believed in communismThe supplies of the militant North Vietnamese forces will be transported to Hanoi via Haiphong. US forces will launch air strikes over Haiphong, and bombs will often fall to Haiyang.

In order to avoid air strikes, Lao Jin's parents dug a cellar in the house that could hide four or five people. Every time they heard a harsh alarm, the parents hid the young Lao Jin into the cellar.

"I hated the United States every time I hid a bomb when I was a kid, and now I don't. I don't hate it now." Recalling the change in his attitude towards the United States, Lao Jin had a hard time remembering an exact time. "Vietnamese people are more peace-loving and don't like itWar. If there are enemies coming to fight the Vietnamese, they will definitely fight. But now is the time of peace, and everyone can be friends together. "

But I really want to be a friend. It's not that easy. The legacy of the Vietnam War has become a problem for Yokohama.

In order to curb guerrilla warfare in North Vietnam, the U.S. military sprayed a large amount of defoliant in the jungle area of ​​southern Vietnam. Because of the orange stripes on the defoliant container, it was called the orange agent. The main component of the orange agent is dioxin compounds, which are extremely harmful to the nervous system.And, it is carcinogenic. The leaf-changing weapon has become a major scandal in the history of the Vietnam War.

Vietnamese Youth Daily reported that from 1961 to 1971, the U.S. military sprayed about 80 million liters of orange agent in South Vietnam, and 2.1 million to 4.8 million Vietnamese were directly polluted by orange agent and other chemicals. The Vietnamese governmentThere is no money for the people in the sowing area to move, and no money to detoxify the soil. Thousands of farmers are still farming and fishing here and sending contaminated food to the mouths of more compatriots.

During college, Jin Yan went to a hospital in Hanoi with classmates to visit people infected with Orange Agent. Among the infected persons Jin Yan saw, there were both old people who were directly exposed to Orange Agent and their second and first-generation children.Three generations. Here, the physiological differences between young people and the elderly have been reduced: most people cannot walk upright and need to use a wheelchair to move. In many news pictures, the symptoms of people infected with orange agent are more serious: somePeople's eyes are protruding, some human faces have a foreign body, and some people's waists are deformed and strangely twisted into S-shapes.

Jin Yan also asked the infected people ’s attitude toward the United States, unexpectedly, as witnesses, they still did not express a strong hatred for the United States. "They will only remember what the previous war looked like and the consequences of the warThis is how it is now. I have never heard them say which country they hate. "

In 2012, the United States launched a four-year, $ 43 million project to clean up an area where Orange Agent is particularly polluted. Prior to this, the United States had contributed a total of $ 60 million to assist Vietnam in removing orange agents.Pollution and social welfare work.

According to the official survey of Vietnam, there are unexplosives throughout the territory, and the "orange agent pollution" is as high as 61,300 square kilometers, accounting for nearly one fifth of the total land area.

Among them, Bien Hoa Airport, Fudge Airport, and Da Nang Airport used by the U.S. military are the hardest hit areas of "Orange Pollution."

At that time, a number of foreign news organizations in Vietnam were invited to visit the removal operation. Under the guidance of US experts, the staff first digged the contaminated earth with an excavator and transported it away, using scouring, high temperature and solvent dilution, etc.Concentrated removal of toxins from the soil. Some Vietnamese people on the job site burst into tears with excitement.

"This shows that the U.S. government is taking responsibility to help us, and hope that this effort will be strengthened in the future." In an interview with the BBC, Vietnam ’s "Orange Agent Victims Association" Vice President Chen Chunqiu said.

The United States has achieved initial success with Vietnam ’s “public diplomacy” by “repairing the wounds of war.” Vietnam ’s official news agency said the cleanup operation “reflected the friendly and cooperative relationship between the governments and people of Vietnam and the United States.” The Guardian said,The orange agent is the "last diplomatic stinger" between Washington and Hanoi. After "unplugging the stinger, the relationship between Vietnam and the United States is rapidly heating up in the face of common interests.

In addition to cleaning up the orange agent, the United States has also provided medical and military assistance to Vietnam.

This post-war remedy apparently won the trust and forgiveness of the Vietnamese. "After the United States and Vietnam established diplomatic relations, they made remedial measures, such as paying for the establishment of factories and recruiting people injured by the orange agent.The factory has made sincere compensation, "said Yang Jian, associate professor of the Department of Vietnamese Languages ​​at Yunnan Normal University. In addition, the tragic Vietnam War may have played a role in the psychological shaping of the Vietnamese people.There are many, so they are hungry for happiness, and they are particularly anxious to forget the wounds of war, so they replace this wound in a very positive way. This is the pursuit of happiness and it is easier to satisfy. "

Efforts of Vietnam Veterans

The Vietnam Veterans Group once became the "third channel" for communication between the two countries. On the afternoon of January 18, 2019, Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc met with the former U.S. Ambassador to Vietnam, Pete Peterson. On the same day, the Vietnam News Agency also published an article, highlyPraises Peterson "for his active contribution to lifting the U.S. trade embargo against Vietnam and promoting Vietnam-US relations.

Peter Peterson was one of the most famous veterans who returned to Vietnam after the war. During the Vietnam War, his plane was shot down over Hanoi, spent six and a half years in a Vietnamese prison, and exchanged prisoners of war.China was released and returned to China. Until 1995, when US-Vietnam relations were normalized, Peter Peterson was appointed as the first ambassador to Vietnam.

August 25, 2018, Sen. John McCain, a senior U.S. Republican, passed away. Immediately, mainstream newspapers such as the Vietnam People ’s Daily published articles commemorating McCain ’s “important contribution to the normalization of Vietnam-US relations.”

McCain is also a legendary Vietnam War veteran. During Operation Mine Rolling on October 26, 1967, his plane was shot down while bombing a power plant in Hanoi, and a Vietnamese young man jumped into the lake to rescue himHe was raised. Six years later, McCain was returned to the United States when the two sides exchanged prisoners of war.

After returning home, McCain entered his career in politics and became one of the first politicians to promote the normalization of US-Vietnamese relations through humanitarian assistance. For many years, he personally participated in searching for missing persons, assisting the disabled, removing "Humanitarian activities such as "Orange Pollution" and explosives.

McCain is also considered to be the most influential politician in Vietnam's policy. In 1994, the U.S. Senate approved a resolution initiated by McCain and others to end economic sanctions on Vietnam.The normalization of Vietnam ’s relations paved the way. McCain also pushed for lifting the arms embargo on Vietnam.

In Vietnam ’s policy, the “American Vietnam Veterans Association” VVA, established in 1978, is also an influential interest group. It is responsible for safeguarding the rights and interests of veterans in the United States, and frequently organizes exchanges, assistance and other public welfare activities for Vietnam., Still active on the stage of public diplomacy with Vietnam.

In November 2018, a US-Vietnamese bilateral exchange event sponsored by the "American Vietnam Veterans Association" was launched in Hanoi. Many participants wept with tears when they saw the documentary "Journey to Reconciliation." This film mainly records the deaths of 6 US troops.The children of the personnel visited the site of the Vietnam War, and they exchanged with the children of three soldiers killed in the Vietnam Army and invited the latter to embark on a trip to the United States to experience the "American Dream".

"This is a thing that has passed, it is a thing in history"

Vietnamese attitude towards the United States is obviously also affected by history education.

In Vietnam, children learn history from the first grade of elementary school and continue to high school.

In the history textbooks for high school history courses in Vietnam, the Vietnam War is known as the War of Resistance 1946-1954 and the War of Resistance against the United States 1954-1975. The textbook of Vietnam history is organized according to the general history structure and the War of ResistanceThe war with the United States was arranged in the "History of Vietnam from 1919 to 2000" in the third grade textbook.

△ April 9, 1975, New York, USA, the playboy's bunny girl is holding an orphan from Vietnam.

It is different from the narrative logic of the "Aggression-Resistance" of the Anti-French War. There are two main narrative lines in the book: the chronological anti-American war and the specific efforts of the North and South Vietnam to resist the United States. Among them,Regarding the part of American aggression, only the "special strategy" of the United States and the "Vietnamization" and "Indochina" strategies of the American Empire were mentioned. In the overall narrative, the war against the United States became the background for this period.The unification of the country was the main contradiction in this period.

As a native of Vietnam, Jin Yan feels that the content of the history book is "very objective." "When studying history, the teacher will emphasize to us that this is a thing that has passed and is a thing in history. Even if we used toFighted against Japan, the United States, France, and China, but this is only a thing of the past. "

Another young man named Ruan Qiuxia also said in an interview with the US media that the war was like ancient history. "Of course we must remember that the United States has attacked Vietnam. But we will not evaluate the United States in this regard.People, because that is history. We should not forget the past, but the future is more important. This is what we learned in school. "

In addition to history textbooks, Vietnam also has a large number of movies, books, and songs based on the Vietnam War. Every specific festival such as Liberation Day and Independence Day, Vietnam Central Television also broadcasts special films. In Jin Yan's impression, the schoolOn the contrary, it is rare to organize students to watch similar movies, "It is too bloody and violent, and schools will not organize it."

In 2012, the Australian Dialogue website reported that the war against the United States had diminished in the collective consciousness of local people in Vietnam. Only people over 65 years of age had a clear memory of that war, and this part of the population only accounted for all of Vietnam.Less than 6% of the population. Most people living in new economic and geopolitical realities do not remember the war that the country experienced. Survivors who have experienced human tragedies are reluctant to look back, nor have they been in textbooks in Vietnamese schoolsRender that war more. Therefore, most Vietnamese people seem to have limited knowledge of the Vietnam War and its consequences, and bringing up that war will not provoke a big reaction.

There is a small memorial in Mei Lai Village, Vietnam ’s Broad Province, to commemorate the bloody tragedy caused by the US military here in 1968-more than 500 unarmed villagers were shot dead by US soldiers. In the list of victims displayed in the memorial,There are 160 children, the youngest of whom is less than 3 years old. However, the villagers in this village have forgiven the Americans.

According to the "Youth Reference" report, Fan Shishun in his eighties made it clear that "We do not hate Americans. The anti-war movement has secured peace for us. Although I cannot forget the crimes of those soldiers, I have always worked hardLook forward. "

"Thinking about the past in your head, your life will be very tired." Hengzi, who grew up in Hanoi, said that Vietnam's life is better now than before. If Vietnamese people have no hatred for the United States, the United States will be moreThe willingness to invest in Vietnam is good for Vietnam's development.

"The United States is a very good country"

It is also a legacy of the Vietnam War. After a few years, people infected with the orange agent will eventually become stories in history books, and the Vietnamese-American mixed race and their descendants will continue to affect the Vietnamese American dream.

Vietnamese biracials are descendants of American soldiers and Vietnamese women during the Vietnam War. Vietnamese people attach great importance to family and determine the boundaries of the family based on their descent. After the Vietnam War, the fathers of the Vietnamese biracial returned to the United States.Unwelcome people were even considered "children of the enemy."

Soon, these half-blooded people turned into hot citrons.

After the withdrawal of US troops from Vietnam, some residents and government employees in South Vietnam also fled to the United States. According to statistics, from May 1975 to the end of 1983, approximately 1.3 million Vietnamese left Vietnam. The United States received a large number of war-inducedRefugees, and has introduced special regulations for children born to Americans and Vietnamese women, allowing Vietnamese and Americans and their families to emigrate to the United States.

In 1982, the Asian-American Children Act issued by the United States stipulated that the father was an American, and children born in South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand from 1950 to October 22, 1982 may have priority in immigration to the United States. The ActOnly Vietnamese-Americans are allowed to immigrate to the United States, so only a small number of Vietnamese-Americans consent to their children's immigration. According to statistics, as of 1984, between 12,000 and 15,000 Vietnamese-Americans and their families were allowed to enter the United States.

In 1987, the United States passed the Return of Native Americans and Asians. According to this law, Vietnamese and Americans born between January 1962 and January 1, 1976 and their immediate family members can be refugees but have full U.S. citizens.Rights and obligations emigrated to the United States. As of 1992, another 66,000 mixed-race children had arrived in the United States.

△ March 30, 2018, New Orleans, United States, tailor Minn Nguyen. He immigrated from Vietnam to the United States in 1975, and has been a tailor for 35 years.

Vietnamese's longing for the United States is fully demonstrated on the problem of mixed races. Although many mixed races have been discriminated against in Vietnam before, some Vietnamese now even impersonate immediate family members of Vietnamese and American races in order to obtain the status of American immigrants.According to statistics from American scholars, 75% of Vietnamese-American mixed races entered the United States alone or with "relatives" who have no blood relationship.

Hengzi still remembers watching many TV programs after the immigrants from Vietnam and the United States were immigrants when he was a kid. These mulattos, which were disgusted by the Vietnamese, became the targets of the major media. They reported on their lives in the United States, food, clothing, and transportation.All inclusive.

The TV show brought distant American life to the Vietnamese. Hengzi still remembers his shock to this day: "Why are doctors in the hospital dressed so white? People in the street wear clothes that look good; I heardThe salary over a month is more than our two-year salary. "

The United States became a place where gold was everywhere in the eyes of Vietnamese at that time, and Americans also became synonymous with "rich". In an era of poor economy in Vietnam, if anyone has relatives in Europe or the United States, as long asBeing able to give some dollars is a great help to the whole family. "Everyone feels that the United States is a very good country and life there is wonderful."

To this day, immigrating to the United States and even traveling to the United States are the dreams of many Vietnamese. "Only very good people can go to the United States to study and work in the United States." Hengzi said.

In the Quora Q & A mentioned earlier, the Americans also wrote their own answers, and the tone remains the same: "Just as other Americans responded to the question of living in Vietnam, I was warmly welcomed in Ho Chi Minh City";"I have been living in Ho Chi Minh City for the past two years and have not seen an anti-American Vietnamese. Instead, the Vietnamese I met were all pro-American and very friendly."

In 2018, the Pew Research Center, a well-known independent polling agency in the United States, released a survey result that 78% of Vietnamese people applauded the United States. Among them, 88% of Vietnamese under 30 years of age praised the United States.

Comprehensively adapted from "Global People" and "See the World"

Author: Gui

Source: "East, West, South, North"

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