Tie a constant rope outside the black hole, can you pull out the person who fell into the black hole?

2020-01-06 | Theory of Quantum Science original |

"No one, and no one will ever be able to escape the consequences of choice."-Fred a Montapert

Since human beings know that there are strange objects like black holes, we always want to defeat the gravitation of black holes in our thinking, because we all know that the gravitation of black holes is so great that even light with no mass and high speed cannot escape.It is also interesting to challenge the gravity of black holes. For example, the following hypothesis :

Is it possible for us to climb out of a black hole? Not through the escape velocity, but through an illusion elevator. Just like taking a space elevator from the earth, we can escape the earth ’s gravitational field without having to reach the escape velocity of the earth; or,Outside the horizon of a black hole, there is a huge spaceship that can provide enough power. Can a person be pulled out of the black hole with a very strong rope?

Talk today, is this seemingly perfect method feasible?

First tell me how the black hole came from

A black hole has not only a singularity with extremely high density and mass, but also the space around it is so distorted that any objects falling into it cannot escape. Although this is a black hole as we usually think, black holes are moreTo be precise, it is the area of ​​space around an object. No matter what kind of matter or energy, even the light itself cannot escape.

In fact, this is not as complicated as we think: if we squeeze the sun as it is into a space with a radius of only a few kilometers, we will eventually get a black hole. Although our sun will not undergo this dangerous transformation,But some stars in the universe will eventually produce black holes in this way.

There are many young, massive stars in the universe. For example, the core of the super star cluster in the picture above has 20, 40, or even 100 of the bluest, hottest and brightest objects. Some of them have the mass of the sun.260 times. The core of these stars is also the fastest burning nuclear fuel of all stars, with a life span of only about 1 to 2 million years, instead of billions of years like the sun.

When their cores run out of nuclear fuel, the core's nuclei will be subject to huge gravitational forces. If there is no radiation pressure generated by nuclear fusion to support the star itself, its core will implosion. In some cases, the atomic nucleusAnd electrons will be fused together to form a large number of neutrons. All neutrons are bound together under the action of gravity. This is called a neutron star. If the core mass is more than three times the mass of the sun, then the neutron starThe density and mass will be very large, and further collapse, forming a black hole.

Black holes formed by stars are generally very small, several to hundreds of times the mass of the sun. However, black holes can become larger by merging, engulfing matter and energy, and sinking to the center of the galaxy. In the center of the galaxy, There is a celestial body about 4 million times the mass of the sun, and around it we can see a single star orbiting this celestial body that does not emit any light.

The black holes of other galaxies are even larger, thousands of times the mass of black holes in the Milky Way, and theoretically they have no upper limit.

some simple properties of black holes

There are two important properties of black holes that we haven't discussed yet, which will lead us to find the answer to today's question. First of all, the greater the mass of a black hole, what will happen to the space?

The definition of a black hole is that no object can escape its gravity in space, no matter how fast the object is accelerating, no matter whether the object is moving at the speed of light. The boundary that an object can and an object cannot escape is what we callEvent horizon, each black hole has such a visual interface.

In the horizon around the black hole with the highest mass, the space curvature is much smaller, and around the black hole with the smallest mass, the space curvature is the most severe and the largest! If you "stand" on the horizon of a black hole, Your feet are at the edge of the visual interface, your head is 1.7 meters away from the singularity, there will be a force to stretch your body, and produce a strong tidal gravity, we call it "spaghetti". If this black hole is inIn the center of our galaxy, the force that stretches you is only 0.1% of the gravity of the earth, and if the earth itself becomes a black hole, if you stand on it, the tensile force will be 10 ^ 20 times the current gravity of the earth!

Mastering the above knowledge, let's verify whether an object can be pulled out of a black hole with a particularly hard rope?

If the tidal force of a large black hole is small at the edge of the event horizon, or a rope will not break under the combination of electromagnetic force, suspend an object outside the event horizon, let him briefly pass through the visual interface, and thenPull it back safely.

Is this possible? To understand this, let's go back to what happened at the junction of the neutron star forming a black hole, that is, what happened at that mass threshold.

Imagine a neutron sphere with an amazing density, but the photons on the surface can still escape into space without spiraling into the neutron star. Now, let's put another neutron on its surface, this neutron is a pressure-spanning neutron starThat straw, suddenly the neutron ball itself could not resist the gravitational collapse. Now let's see what happens when the black hole is formed?

Now imagine another neutron composed of quark and gluon. We know that gluon moves from one quark to another quark in order to exchange strong nuclear force and combine quarks to form a neutron.

Now, when a neutron star collapses into a black hole, one of the quarks will be closer to the singularity of the center of the black hole than the other quark, and the other will be farther away. In order for the exchange of forces to occur and to stabilize the neutron,The gluon must move from a closer quark to a farther quark at a certain moment. But even if the gluon is at the speed of light gluon is massless, it can no longer transmit power! Because all zero geodesics, Or the path of an object moving at the speed of light, will enter the singularity at the center of the black hole. That is to say, the path of the gluon is no longer a random transmission of power, but can only fall to the singularity. In addition, the gluon will neverFarther than the black hole singularity at launch. As long as you enter the black hole's visual interface, all forces cannot be transmitted normally.

This is why neutrons in the black hole's horizon must collapse to be part of the central singularity.

Now, let's return to the rope that crosses the black hole visual interface. Whenever any particle crosses the visual field, it is impossible to escape from the visual field. Photons and gluons are particles that need to exchange forces with particles outside the visual field.As soon as they enter the visual interface, they will fall to the black hole singularity, and cannot reach outside the horizon to transfer any force!

No matter there is no electromagnetic force or strong nuclear force, any substance will collapse, because this atom cannot exist stably; if we also assume that the rope will not break, this is more likely to mean that the action of these particles rushing to the singularity will rectifyAll spaceships pull into the black hole. Of course, even if the black hole's tidal force is very small, it will not break down any matter, but once all particles with mass, energy and speed pass through the horizon, they will move towards the singularity and will not go again.Pass any force.

For this reason, once you cross the horizon, there is still no way out of the black hole.


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