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2020-01-06 | National Geographic Book of China original |

Topographic map of Aswan dam on the Nile. Photo / getty

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The Nile River, the longest river in the world. She crosses the plateau, rift valley, desert, and plain, like a complex hydraulic machine, pushing the rain on the equator through the largest desert on the earth and heading towards the Mediterranean shore.She flowed under the feet of Cleopatra, Moses, the Crusaders, and Pharaoh, and to this day the river nourishes life along the shore.

The world-famous Nile River is more than 6,700 kilometers long and is the longest river in the world. You may be wondering, where is the source of this river?

Nile River.Photo/Wikipedia

In fact, for thousands of years, the source of the Nile has long plagued and fascinated people. She has two main branches: the White Nile and the Blue Nile, the longer of which is the White Nile. The ancient EgyptiansNever worry about where the water comes from, but just treat it as a gift from heaven. The earliest Greeks were interested in the origin of the Nile. According to Ptolemy, the best geographer at the time,The Nile was born in a place called "Moon Mountain", where the terrain is very high and snow-covered all the year round. He mapped out the relevant maps in the 2nd century AD, and the accuracy of the river is amazing.

Nile River flows through the area. Cartography / monk

There was no significant new discovery of the source of the Nile during the long 1700 years. The hinterland of Africa was still imagined as a terrible territory for monsters and cannibals. Until the beginning of the 19th century, a wave of adventure emerged in Europe.The mystery suddenly became a hot topic again. On May 24, 1888, the explorer Henry Stanley reached today's border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and saw rolling hills covered by clouds.These mountains are collectively referred to as "Rwenzori," meaning "mountains of rain," and are thought to be covered by salt.

Luwenzori Mountain. Picture / getty

But Stanley immediately realized that Ptolemy's statement was correct. Of course, these snow-capped peaks are certainly not covered by salt, but it is the origin of the Moon Mountain legend. Because glaciers are very rare in the equatorial region, the ancients believed that tropical regions did not.Snowy mountains exist. The highest peak of Mount Ruwenzori is shrouded in clouds and mist all year round. This is the real reason why explorers could not see the birthplace of the Nile River before. But it is the Mount Ruwenzori that gave birth to the White Nile and the water flowing down the snow mountain.Winding to Lake Victoria. Stanley wrote: "I'm sure there is only one place in Victoria Lake where the Nile River flows, and this place is Ripon Falls". The White Nile River flows out of Lake Victoria and becomes rushingwaterfall.

A super fierce Nile crocodile. Picture / picture insect · creative

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After flowing out of Lake Victoria, the river became wider, reaching the border of Murchison Falls National Park. During the dry season, animals gathered on the sandbanks of the White Nile River, and abundant fish attracted birds. After the water level dropped, many animals began to breed.Including the Nile crocodile. The female Nile crocodile is particularly fierce this season, traveling through rivers and sandbars, trying to protect the eggs buried in the ground. The water surface was originally wide, but in recent years, the river has been invaded by water hyacinth. PhoenixEye Blue is native to Brazil and was introduced into various continents as ornamental plants in the early 20th century. They have a particularly strong breeding ability, and there are almost no natural enemies here. They grow wildly, from Lake Victoria to the Nile Delta.

Murchison Falls. Picture / getty

The White Nile reaches the boundary of South Sudan. Once normal, it turns into several tributaries and enters the Sude Marsh. This is the largest wetland in Africa. The rainy season will expand to more than 100,000 square kilometers. The Sude Marsh is full of lakes,The meadows are full of aquatic plants and difficult to navigate. The Dinka people, the main ethnic group of South Sudan, live here. After the rainy season, this nomadic family moved to the Sude Marsh. Animal husbandry occupies an important proportion of their lives. PeopleWill drive cattle to graze here.

Nile River flows through Uganda. Photo / Wikipedia

Dinka people value cows most. They treat cows as family members. They will not be slaughtered until they have no choice but to do so. The whole body of the cow is a treasure, and even urine can be used to wash hands. Feces are used to repel mosquitoes. When the rainy season comes, people will migrate to higher levels.On the grassland, the once lively camp returned to calm in the pouring rain.

The Nile River passes through the world ’s largest desert, the Sahara Desert. Evaporation along the way has caused extreme water loss, and many rivers are gradually disappearing. Why is the Nile alone able to reach the estuary? The answer is: Blue Nile. The White Nile River is about toWhen exhausted, the Blue Nile River is like a timely rain, carrying huge amounts of water into the river. It can be said that without the Blue Nile River, the Nile River may terminate in the desert and cannot reach the coast.

The place where the White Nile and Blue Nile meet—Khartoum. Picture / Picture · Creativity

If the White Nile is calm, then the Blue Nile is wild. They each have a division of labor. The White Nile becomes the original source. The Blue Nile provides sufficient water and rich nutrients. The Blue Nile flows from the south bank of Lake Tana.At first it was just a shallow creek. At the boundary of the Blue Nile Falls, the water became turbulent and made a thunderous sound. In the local language, this waterfall was called "smoke water". The river water then flowed into the Blue Nile Canyon, Pentium in the mountains and mountains.

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Blue Nile Falls, billowing. Picture / Wikipedia

She flows through the Ethiopian plateau, produces many waterfalls and rapids, then gradually slows down into the Sudanese plains, and merges with the White Nile near Khartoum to form the Great Nile, and then enters Egypt. The name of the Blue Nile is very simple and rude.It is covered with mud all the way from the plateau, making the river darker, so it gets its name. Unlike the people on the lower plains, the Ethiopians living on the upper part of the Blue Nile cannot release her power. The Blue Nile provides Egypt to the downstream.Most of the water, but she roared and roared in the canyon when she passed through Ethiopia, and the mountains on both sides of the bank were so high that people couldn't get close to her.

The Blue Nile flowing through Ethiopia. Picture / getty

In the legend of the locals, the Blue Nile Canyon is believed to be buried with evil and is the devil's residence. The surrounding terrain is extremely steep and it is difficult to use the river water. It is always difficult to get water. Some people even have to walk six or seven hours to getOne day of domestic water. The water level is too low compared to the fields, and farmers do not have the capital to buy water pumps, and the burden of water becomes hard and arduous labor. The African continent is severely arid, spreading across tropical deserts and savanna, with strong evaporation of water and life on rivers.Very dependent. The Nile River is very fragile, and the amount of water is basically replenished by upstream rainwater. Once the rainfall decreases, the surrounding residents will immediately be in distress and even starvate.

The Nile River is like a jade belt, nourishing life along the shore. Picture / getty

Maybe someone asks, why not build a hydropower station? This dates back to a colonial agreement. The Nile flows through 10 countries, and Egypt monopolized 65% of the water consumption. This is because during the colonial period, the British stipulatedEgypt has the right to prevent upstream countries from constructing dams on the Nile. In exchange, Britain needs Egypt to provide cotton and access. Colonial times have long been a thing of the past, but Egypt still retains these rights. In recent years, Ethiopia has repeatedly declared war on Egypt in order to improve people's livelihood.Pressure to build a dam-Texer Hydropower Station.

The area on which the Blue Nile River flows stands high on both sides of the banks. Picture / getty

The Tekeze Hydropower Station dam is 188 meters high and is the tallest concrete double-curved thin arch dam in Africa. After the power station is completed, the people of Ethiopia can also enjoy the generosity of the Blue Nile. The real Nile is in the White Nile and Blue NileThe Great Nile after the confluence. The junction of the White Nile and the Blue Nile is the capital of Sudan, Khartoum. Here, the Blue Nile converges, is calm, and turns into a peaceful water surface. The Blue Nile provides 80% of the water to the Nile.It is also the main cause of the flood in the Nile Basin. She brought the plateau nutrients into the main stream of the Nile and flowed to Egypt.

More than 4,000 years ago, the Nile gave birth to the entire ancient Egyptian civilization. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus once said: "Egypt is a gift from the Nile." Water is too precious for the African land. In the droughtIn the desert, only the banks of the Nile have stubborn greenery, bringing together life here. The Nile almost flows through the desert in Egypt. Since the Stone Age, the Egyptians lived next to each other.Driving the flood of this river.

The pyramid is shrouded in fog, adding mystery. Figure / getty

River flooding has always been the enemy of every civilization. The Yellow River in China has repeatedly changed course in history, and the people are miserable. Why is the flood of the Nile particularly popular with the Egyptians? The flood of the Nile is quite regular, and the dry season will be completed every year.At that time, the flooding of the river flooded the ancient Egyptian plain, flooded for three months to soften the soil, and left fertile soil to facilitate farming in the coming year. In a country with almost no precipitation, the Nile River brought water and population, Food and life. It is said that the flood of the river was caused by tears of a goddess named Isis. Whenever the river began to change color before the flood, the Egyptians held a celebration ceremony, which they called "the night of tears."Singing and dancing, thank the gods for bringing the flood.


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Sailing on the Nile. Picture / getty

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