The decline of Japanese liquor culture and the samurai: "Drinking party" that the general's prohibition can't stop.
Speaking of drinking, the Chinese have a psychological complex. People who think they can drink are bold, magnificent, and thin, and they take drinking as a ritual of life. In fact, in terms of drinking, the Japanese don't give up.As for the shogun general, he issued several prohibition orders to limit the wanton behavior of alcoholics, but he still couldn't stop the drinking enthusiasm of the Japanese people, and the alcoholics even held a "big drinking party" to compare the amount of alcohol. Any social phenomenon has a profound history.Logically, Japanese wine culture is rooted in the samurai culture, and it has a special sense of helpless sadness.
Edo people's alcohol consumption-Masanori and Nojiki
According to Japanese historical records, in the early 19th century, citizens of Edo Tokyo drank more than 900,000 barrels of sake every year. The barrel for wine is called a "four bucket", and the actual capacity is about three buckets and five liters, so 900,000The barrel is actually 56,700 liters. Assuming that the population of Edo at the time was one million people, the average consumption per person was about 155 ml per day.
Compared to the past, how is the amount of alcohol consumed by modern Japanese? According to the 2011 “Statistics of Alcohol Sales Consumption by the Japanese Government”, it can be found that Tokyo people are the hardest drinkers. Adults consume an average of 301 ml per day national average224 ml.
Compared to this, it seems that the alcohol consumption of modern Japanese has risen. However, this is a figure calculated based on the adult population, calculated by all residents, 255 ml per person per day, which is not a big difference from the Edo era. However,The Japanese in the Edo period only drank sake Japanese sake, and the alcohol content was generally 6 degrees. However, nearly half of the alcohol consumed by modern people was beer or foam, and their alcohol concentration was only one third of that of sake. Alcohol aloneDegree, Edo people did not lose to modern people.
But it should also be noted that not only sake, but also a large amount of muddy liquor, are in circulation in the Edo market, and the amount of this wine has not been recorded in history. The famine that began in the four years of Tempozan 1833 caused riceIn order to curb the price of rice, the shogunate ordered to reduce the amount of brewing to a third of the original permitted amount.
Due to the restrictions of the Shogunate, the circulation of alcohol in the Edo market has greatly decreased, but the demand for alcohol is still in the market, so many people who make turbid sake appear to use turbid sake to fill the demand for sake. According to Tenpo Seven Years 1836According to the record, there were 330 people who originally "lived on the production of turbid wine". By the time of the eight years of Tianbao 1837, an increase of 1,533 people, totaling 1,863 people. If this part of the production of turbid wine that is not included in the history is calculated,Edo citizens consume a lot of alcohol.
The joke collection "Hidakabi Hiko" appeared in 1796 records the drinking of Edo people. The book describes the three capitals Edo, Kyoto, Osaka, and introduces "Edo Heavy Wine", ""Kyoto re-wears" and "Osaka re-eats." In the eyes of everyone, Edo is a city soaked in wine jars.
Shogun General Tokugawa Tsuyoshi issued "Prohibition Against Alcoholism"
Edo citizens ’alcoholism is also an incredible wonder in the eyes of Westerners. Portuguese Fr. Louis Floyce, who preached to Japan from 1563 to 1597, wrote in his book" Comparison of Japanese and European Cultures "To :
"We do n’t drink to the limit, and no one keeps persuading. The Japanese will continue to persuade each other, some people will vomit, and some will be drunk."
"We think it is a shame to drink unconscious and drink unconscious. It is a shame for the Japanese. But the Japanese are proud of it ..."
Louis Floyce mentioned that the differences between Westerners and Japanese drinkers actually exist in the living habits of East Asia. Japanese people persuade each other until they are drunk, and only drunk is considered in place. FaceThis unworthy situation was determined by Tokugawa Tokugawa, the fifth-generation general of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Tokugawa Tatsuyoshi released an announcement on August 17th in Yuanluo Nine Years 1696, and said three main points :
First, many people are drunk, although they are in an unconscious state, but they have committed violations of the law and discipline, and they are all counted as sober.
Second, you must not force the guests to drink. If someone goes crazy, the person who drinks it will be guilty.
Third, reduce the number of sellers and reduce the supply of alcohol.
What Tokugawa Tatsuyuki forbids is the bad drinking habits pointed out by Freus: drinking too much and going crazy and forcing others to drink.
Tokugawa Tsuyoshi is known for his love of animals in history. He issued a "Soul Compassion Order" to ban Japanese people from killing dogs. But in fact, he did not like Japanese people to drink, except he hated them. Japanese officials at the timeBoth reminded each other that the general hated wine, and had to exercise restraint separately, and told his subordinates to exercise restraint.
Because this announcement did not attract attention, the Shogunate again promulgated the "Alcohol Prohibition Order" the next year. In order to reduce the number of alcohol drinkers and increase the cost of drinking this time, the Shogunate began to "tax" business tax from Edo's wineries. ThisThe business tax was used to fill the shogunate's finances that had deteriorated at the time. At the same time, it was hoped that the increase in taxes would increase the price of alcohol to reduce the market demand for alcohol and curb alcohol abuse by the people.
The business tax was not only targeted at Edo, but it was eventually extended to wineries across the country. According to the "Zhengbao Chronicle", the "sale price of wine is 50% higher than the market price at that time, and the extra 50% is paid to the treasury as business tax." Business taxIt was completely passed on to consumers and caused a lot of dissatisfaction among drinkers. Tokugawa Tsuyoshi died in January in Baoyong six years 1709, and the sales tax was abolished in March of the same year.
The "Alcohol Prohibition Order" is an order based on Tokugawa Tsuyoshi's personal aversion to alcohol. Therefore, although the Alcohol Prohibition Order has not been revoked, it still survives the death of Tokugawa Tatsuyoshi, and the generals of future generations are not.Reissue the same order.
Shogunate shot again, samurai drunk confiscated double swords
After Tokugawa Toshiyoshi's death, although the shogunate relaxed the ban on alcohol, it did not relax the management of drunkards. In response to the law and order problems caused by drunkards who have become drunk, the authorities have formulated strict regulations and issued heavy punishment..
Under the instruction of the eighth-generation general Tokugawa Yoshizun, he specially created a law against drunks, and specifically explained the punishment for samurai killing people when they are drunk :
First, the death penalty of "Fever Alcoholic Murderer".
Second, the "wine madness caused injuries", high and low grade warriors have different treatment methods, the more advanced the samurai, the heavier the punishment, if there is no money to pay for the medical expenses of the wounded, you need to give two long and short swordsThe wounded. The sword is the face and life of the samurai. From this point of view, the punishment for the samurai's drinking and trouble is not heavy.
Third, the punishment for "threatening and violently beating people" is almost the same as the second injury clause. The only difference is that if the samurai cannot pay the fine, he does not need to surrender the two swords, but will hold the otherProperty is handed over to the injured.
Although this decree is strict, it does not cure the symptoms and does not prohibit drinking. There is a saying in Japan that "Edo is characterized by fires and fights." So basically, when someone is drunk, they will fight on the streets.It stands out.
Edo Drinking Ukiyo-e-The Fall of the Samurai
Although the authorities ordered three orders and five applications, no drinking and no drinking incidents were allowed, but people at the time did not care about it, they were proud of drinking, and even held a "drinking party" with a relatively large amount of alcohol. The drinking party appeared very early.According to the "A Miracle Test of Modern Times" 1804, the Qing Dynasty 1648-1652 frequently held wine battles. The drinkers were divided into two parties, and those who had a large amount of alcohol were invited to be generals on both sides.Drinking in a big cup, the amount of alcohol in the competition, and finally the winner.
Drinking Club This kind of bizarre event became popular again in the 19th century. According to the notes of the people at that time, the so-called Drinking Club invited wine lords to sit in left and right rows with those who were not good at drinking, and the organizers recorded the amount of food and drink on both sides.And posted it for watching the lively crowd.
The note also recorded a very popular drinking party. In order to celebrate his birthday, Nakaya Romonemon hosted a "drink war" and invited winemakers from all walks of life. There were about a hundred participants on the day.Six kinds of wine glasses were prepared, and the largest one had a capacity of nearly three liters. As a result of the game, Sabeyama of Shimoyama drank more than seven liters, Iseya Hara of Yoshihara drank more than three liters, and Okai Osaka drank more than four liters....
Although the numbers are a bit exaggerated, it also proves that Edo is a place where alcoholics gather. Why are Japanese so keen on drinking? This problem has to start with the decline of the samurai class.
The classic of Japanese samurai is called "Ye Yin". "Ye Yin Wen Shu" is a samurai cultivation book spread in the Edo era. It can be said that it is an "The Analects" about the samurai's behavior, so it is also called "Ye Yin Analects"Excerpt ". The word" Ye Yin "is derived from ancient poems, meaning that the samurai should be like the shade of a leaf, and dedicate his life to the Lord in a place invisible to others. From the beginning of this book," Samurai, the meaning of death is also. "Requires the samurai to appear generously for the master's cause.
Samurai is a vassal of the master's war. The problem is that Japan was closed in the Edo era. Samurai were useless, so their identity began to be confused. If they did not fight, what would the samurai do? At the same time, due to their status and role,As the samurai's income plummeted, eating and drinking became a problem. Although their status was high, their lives were not as decent as "cheap" businessmen.
The abandonment of the times and the hardship of life have caused a lot of alcoholism among Japanese samurai. Due to the alcoholism of samurai, many civilians who imitate the words and deeds of samurai have also begun to live a life of drunkenness and dream death.Alcohol problem.
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