In the beginning of 2020, Trump suddenly ordered the U.S. military to successfully "decapitate" the number one character in the Iranian army, Suleimani, which triggered a strong international rebound.
In this incident, national interests, religious conflicts, historical hatred, and international forces were deeply entangled. How should we understand them rationally?
This article analyzes Iran ’s 100-year history, thinking about why the Pahlavi dynasty suddenly collapsed in the modernization reform, how Khomeini established a state-religion unity, and what role the United States played in Iran ’s history.What are the implications of the situation in Iran.
Logic of this article :
I. Pahlavi Dynasty: Dilemma of Legality
II. Islamic Revolution: Paradox of Modernization
III. The Khomeini era: Fakih Guardianship
Note: The text is 10,000 words, and the reading time is about 30 minutes. You can collect it before reading it and share it with your friends. The "On the Fall of the Iranian Pahlavi Dynasty" by Teacher Li Chunfang of the Academy of Social Sciences has inspired this article. Herethank!
On February 18, 1921, Reza Khan Pahlavi led the 3,000 Cossacks to march into the capital Tehran, arrested a large number of officials, and the king fled after hearing the news. Reza had seized power in a bloodless manner, and Iran has since entered Iran.Uygur era.
Two years ago, Britain tried to reduce Iran to a protectorate, forcing the Iranian king to sign the British-Iranian agreement. This slavery agreement was opposed by the Iranian people and triggered an anti-British tide. The British feared that the Iranian king would have difficulty controlling the situation and then supported it.Replaced by Reliza.
Reza ’s coup is considered the beginning of Iran's modernization, but its legitimacy, especially by relying on British forces to seize power, has always plagued the Pahlavi dynasty.
Reza was a hard-liner. He was born poor, and was fourteen years old. He climbed from the soldier to the rank of lieutenant colonel. After the October Revolution in Russia, he took the opportunity to drive away Russian officers and took control of the Cossack division.The faction in the army.
After the crown and crown, in order to maintain the legitimacy of the regime, Reza on the one hand implemented a constitutional monarchy and promoted ambitious modernization plans; on the other hand, tried to stay away from Britain and the Soviet Union, regain the territories and sovereignty occupied by the Soviet Union, and tried to recapture the BritishControlled oil resources.
Reza worships Turkish President Kemal, and is determined to imitate Turkey and achieve wealth and strength through elite management. Reza separated the political power from the religious power, and based on the French code, formulated criminal law, commercial law, and civil law.Replaces the Qur'an and Sharia law, depriving and restricting priests' right to interfere in administration and justice.
This reform was strongly opposed by the church forces. Reza established a powerful army to suppress the opponents. He eliminated the Soviet-backed army in the north, and calmed the Kurdish resistance in the south.Southwest suppresses the British-backed rebellion and sweeps separatist activities in the middle. Reza ’s reforms are tough and bloody, but there is no lack of progress.
He also established schools, promoted secular education, and cracked down on church control over schools. He ordered that women be allowed to work and abolished unequal restrictions on women by doctrine.
The law was abolished in 1929 and both men and women could wear European-style clothes; the law was banned to force women to wear veils in 1935. This law was opposed by the religious forces in Mashhad and Reza decisively repressed.
Reza shows the ambition and courage of the founders founders of the dynasty to quickly become rich and powerful. He worked hard to learn from the Western powers and sent his son Mohamed Reza Pahlavi and more than 100 people to study in Europe.Sa Sa's strong hand pushed the evolution of this ancient Persian country into a modern country, with factories being built, cities rising, workers and middle classes emerging, and public education emerging.
Reza also held a strong attitude towards the British. He abolished the British-Iranian agreement not yet passed by the parliament, expelled the British from the Iranian government and the army, disbanded the British armed forces in Iran, and demobilized the gendarmerie.Swedish officer.
At that time, Britain controlled Iran ’s oil resources through British and Iraqi Petroleum Corporation. This company is the predecessor of the current British Petroleum Corporation. In 1930, this company's oil production ranked third in the Western world, with extremely rich profits.But the Iranian government's profit share was less than 6.5%. In the second year, the profit share fell to 1.6%, a move that sparked resistance in Iran.
Reza ordered the concession of this company revoked, so Reza got the support of the people and was praised as a national hero. However, the British government pressured Reza, the two countries renegotiated, and signed a term in 1933Sixty years of new concession agreement. The area of the new concession is half less than before only 20% after 1938, and the Reza government can obtain generous concession fees and petroleum taxes from British and Iraqi oil companies every year..
After controlling more domination in key oil fields, Reza refused to import technology from Britain and the Soviet Union, and chose to cooperate with Germany, France, and Italy.
But, unfortunately, World War II broke out in 1939. Two years later, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, and Britain and the Soviet Union became allies. More importantly, the Germans struck the Soviets and quickly cut off the Soviet supply line. The Soviet Union urgently opened upWith the new supply line, Britain was eager to regain control of Iran ’s oil, so the two countries planned to invade Iran in two ways, pinching north and south, and eventually Tehran.
At this time, Reza made a strategic misjudgment. He believed that Iran would not be involved in the war as long as Iran did not fall to the Axis Powers, so Reza declared Iran as a neutral country. He even believed that Britain only soughtOil resources in the south cannot allow the Soviet Union to invade northern Iran. The old king did not expect that the Soviet Union attempted to swallow Iran.
The United Kingdom has found a reason to launch a war. It believes that Iran provides convenience to the enemy Germany, and allows German engineers to engage in espionage in Iran in order to damage the facilities of British and Iranian oil companies.
This war lasted only 4 days. The British and Soviets joined Tehran, arrested Reza, and exiled him. Iran ’s railways, communications, and oil were controlled by the British and Soviets. The Allied United States continued to pass the Iranian supply line and launch strategiesGoods, shipped north to the Soviet Army and south to the British-French Coalition.
In November 1943, the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union held a famous Tehran conference in the Iranian capital. It can be seen that Iran's geographical location is of great importance to the allies. This meeting confirmed that the United States and Britain opened a second battlefield in Western Europe and attacked the Germans with the Soviets..
The purpose of the Allies is not to occupy Iran. The Tehran Conference promised Iran that it would withdraw its troops within six months after the war ended.
However, the sudden downfall of the Reza regime was a great blow to the authority of the Pahlavi dynasty. With the support of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, Reza's son Pahlavi succeeded.
The young Pahlavi belongs to the typical "second generation of monarchs", idealistic governing the country, arrogant and self-respecting, but at a critical moment weak and weak, lacking his father's wrists and politicians' wisdom.
After the end of World War II, the Soviet Union broke its promises and refused to withdraw its troops, and supported left-wing parties in the northern provinces of Iran. Although this force was suppressed afterwards, it became an important force to overthrow the Pahlavi dynasty.
1949, the attempted assassination of the left-wing party sponsored by the Soviet Union and the Iranian government banned the left-wing party. Two years later, Pahlavi encountered another challenge from nationalist forces. The experienced Mossad won in the parliamentary vote, Was appointed Prime Minister of Iran. Mossah took over the king and promoted the nationalization of oil. This caused great dissatisfaction in Britain, so the United Kingdom and the United States initiated a coup, overthrowing Mossade, and Pahlavi regained power.
The Pahlavi dynasty, which has no tribal foundation, has always been intertwined with British and American forces. Both kings came to power or took a foothold in coups motivated by foreign forces. Pahlavi, like his father, faces the legitimacy of the regime.
After this coup, Pahlavi reached a deal with the United States. The Zahidi government controlled by Pahlavi re-signed the oil agreement with Britain and the United States, and U.S. oil capital became the biggest winner. The United States provided Pahlavi with $ 45 millionEmergency loan to help the Iranian government resolve the financial crisis.
In 1960, Iran ’s finances deteriorated again, the economic crisis broke out, many companies closed down, and the unemployment rate exceeded 20%. This year, Iran had more than 100 strikes and anti-government demonstrations.
At the end of 1960, the young Kennedy was elected President of the United States, and he adjusted his policy towards Iran. Not long after Kennedy took office, the State Department submitted a report on Iranian policy to the new president. The report states that adequate assistance is needed to preventIran ’s economic collapse and financial bankruptcy, but the king Pahlavi must adopt a series of policies, such as meeting the political demands of the middle class. At the same time, this report reminds Kennedy to pay close attention to the situation in Iran and find alternatives.
From 1954 to 1962, the United States provided Iran with a total of US $ 681 million in economic aid and US $ 500 million in military assistance. However, Pahlavi still has difficulty controlling the situation. In 1960, Pahlevi promised free elections, but the electionsFraud is rampant and is opposed by more people.
Facing the bad situation, Pahlavi once again turned to the U.S. government for help. Kennedy agreed to continue to provide huge loans, but on the condition that Pahlavi must enable liberals to carry out social reforms. Pahlavi later recalled: "Americans wantedHe wanted the Prime Minister of Petroleum and its people. This person was Armini. The pressure was too great in the end and I couldn't resist it, especially after Kennedy was elected president. "
After Armin came to power, he forcibly disbanded the parliament to "implement vital reforms without hindrance." However, Armini was forced to resign only after 14 months in power. Some scholars speculated that the turn of the spring and summer of 1962, Pahlavi's visit to the United States and Kennedy reached a tacit agreement: the United States abandoned Armini, Pahlavi personally presided over social reforms.
In January 1963, Pahlavi promulgated six reform plans. This is the "white revolution" that people talk about today.
The six plans include land reform, nationalization of forests, sale of state-owned enterprises, workers participating in company dividends, giving women the right to vote, and "literacy" in rural areas.
These reforms, considered to be liberal or Western reforms, actually inherited the reform ideas of Pahlavi's father, and essentially strengthened the legitimacy of the Pahlavi dynasty through state modernization.
At the time the parliament was disbanded, in order to obtain public support, Pahlavi adopted a referendum to decide whether to reform. As a result, 99.9% of the votes were in favor, and most farmers and citizens supported the reform.
Pahlavi's reform results are significant. Iran's degree of industrialization and urbanization has increased significantly. From 1963 to 1976, Iran's GDP growth rate exceeded 11% in most years. By 1976, nearly half of the populationLiving in the city, nearly half of the population is free of “illiteracy.” Social fashion has taken on a new look. Women are dressed like Europe and the United States. They can freely love, speak freely, and have the right to vote.
However, what confuses the world is that the Pahlavi dynasty suddenly collapsed while the economy continued to prosper and the society continued to open for more than ten years.
Some people attribute the failure of the Pahlavi dynasty to liberal reforms, arguing that the gap between the rich and the poor brought about by capitalism has aggravated social contradictions.
The collapse of the Pahlavi dynasty is actually a classic case of the modernization reform of the dictatorship.
American sociologist Davis proposed the "Davis J-curve" of "when the revolution broke out" in 1962. Davis believes that poverty alone is not enough to trigger a revolution. The country most likely to explode is not a closed countryIs not an open country, but a country in the process of modernization.
With the reform and opening up, such countries have reduced social stability and sustained economic growth. Once the economy stalls, it may lead to imbalance between reality and expectations. This psychological frustration and low tolerance for unfairness after opening up are breeding grounds.Revolutionary soil.
French historians have put forward the "paradox" of the revolution after studying the French Revolution :
"The revolution does not always happen because people are getting worse. The most common situation is that people who have always endured the most unbearable laws without complaints, and once the pressure on the law eases, they willForced to abandon. The regime destroyed by the revolution is almost always better than the one before it, and experience tells us that for a bad government, the most dangerous moment is usually the moment it begins to reform. "
However, it is puzzling that Pahlavi controlled the powerful army and the state machine, as well as the United States, but surrendered in the Iranian Islamic Revolution.
Actually, the Pahlavi dynasty fell into the "paradox" of the national modernization reform of the dictator. The dictator's implementation of the national modernization reform is a process of self-destruction.As long as we continue to modernize, the dictator will eventually lose power, and the best outcome is that the Queen of England and the Emperor of Japan still enjoy the highest glory of the national symbol.
The two kings of the Pahlavi dynasty had to vigorously promote the modernization of the country to strengthen the legitimacy of the dynasty, but the modernization reform will inevitably exacerbate its loss of political power and weaken the legitimacy of its regime. Like most monarchs who pushed for reform, PakistanWhile Levy vigorously promotes economic and social reforms, he also strives to capture economic benefits and strengthen political rule.
Pahlevi amended the constitution, the king has the power to shelve any fiscal bill passed by the parliament, formed the intelligence unit "Sawak" against the opposition, and also ordered the abolition of the bipartisan system and the implementation of the one-party system. In order to suppress IslamFor the Ye faction, Pahlavi deliberately strengthened the Aryan descent of Iran and the monarchy tradition of the Persian Empire. At the same time, Pahlevi suppressed all opposition forces within.
However, Pahlavi's reform promotes rapid economic growth, and the wealth creation effect suppresses people's dissatisfaction. The church, farmers, and the middle class all maintain a certain tolerance for Pahlavi. However, the achievements of economic reform have stunned Pahlavi.Since the 1970s, he has been engaged in nationwide extravagant activities to build national authority and whitewash peace.
In 1971, celebrating the 2500 anniversary of the establishment of the Persian Empire;
1974 Asian Games;
In 1976, the Islamic calendar was abolished and the royal calendar calculated from the beginning of the Persian Empire in the 25th century was adopted-designed to de-Islamize.
In the 1970s, Iran ’s rapid economic growth relied heavily on oil exports, but the royal family controlled oil resources, and export profits could not benefit the people.
In October 1973, in order to crack down on Western countries' support for Israel, Iran and the Arab countries jointly raised oil prices substantially and imposed an oil embargo on Western countries. The first oil crisis broke out.
The price of oil doubled in a short period of time, Pahlavi was dazzled by the huge amount of US dollars and foreign exchange, and forgot where his money came from, and how his government came from.
Pahlevi announced in a high profile that Iran would be built into the fifth largest industrial country in the world and a military power in the Middle East to revive the "great civilization" of the Persian empire. At that time, the confidence index of Iran as a whole exploded, expectations rose, and the streets were filled with oil., Dollars and the taste of aircraft carriers.
Pahlevi took a large amount of dollars to buy US weapons, large-scale armed forces, and surveillance organization Sakva to strengthen rule. From 1972 to 1976, the US and Iran ordered arms contracts as high as $ 10.4 billion.
However, since 1974, the Iranian economy began to stall, inflation has risen rapidly, the economy fell into negative growth in 1975, rebounded in 1976, and negative growth in 1977, and the growth rate exceeded -10% from 1978 to 1979.
Once the economy stalls, dissatisfaction, anger, and hatred will surge out under the sea. Many reforms carried out by Pahlavi ignore the tradition of Islam and seriously hurt the economic interests of the Islamic church and the emotions of believers.
Pahlevi promotes land reform in the form of cooperatives, depriving landowners and churches of land, and converting land into cooperatives' shares and distributing them to farmers. Farmers feel uneasy in holding stocks and feel deceived. At the same time, a large number of farmersWhen they flow to cities and the economy is stalling, a large number of unemployed migrant workers cannot return to farmland.
In the 70 years, Iran's population increased rapidly. By 1976, Iran had a population of more than 33 million, nearly half of whom lived in cities and more than half were under the age of 20. They became an uncontrollable torrent of revolution.
In addition, the nationalist forces, constitutional liberals, left-wing parties, union forces, and unemployed workers who were once suppressed by Pahlavi also began to move.
Since 1977, a large-scale anti-government and anti-king movement broke out in Iran. In 1978, demonstrations in various cities continued to escalate, and the protesters shouted "Down with the King", "Western Puppet", and "Building an Islamic State"Many parades are carrying portraits of an old man, who is Khomeini.
Khomeini is the leader of the Islamic Shiites in Iran. He is the main opponent of Pahlavi's white revolution. He has publicly insulted Pahlavi as a "despicable person" and "American running dog."Brazil slammed Pahlavi's policies for undermining Islamic traditions and turning Iran into a nation of drugs, alcohol, and prostitutes.
The Iranian government has repeatedly arrested Khomeini and exiled him for 14 years. Khomeini has spent most of his time in the holy city of Najaf in Iraq. He insisted on fighting and won prestige among Iran and Shiites in Iraq.
A lot of people are puzzled. Why did Pahlavi sit and watch the demonstrations and be overthrown by the defenseless Khomeini? Could it be that the government can be said by the mouth?
At that time, almost all necessity and coincidence were brought together. At this juncture, history took a nap and became Iran as it is today.
First of all, the attitude of the United States is extremely critical. At the time, President Carter of the United States was not resolute, clear, or even hesitant to support Pahlavi.
The oil crisis in 1974 severely damaged the U.S. economy, causing the United States to trigger the worst and lasting stagflation crisis since World War II. The Carter administration has been struggling to cope with high inflation, high unemployment, union negotiations, and price control during its short four-year governing career.. Carter therefore hates Middle East oil companies, and he urges the American people to save oil consumption and not be fooled by Arabs and oil companies.
In addition, Carter advertised international human rights diplomacy at that time and won a lot of popular support. After taking office, he practiced "forbearance diplomacy" and did not support the government to crack down on people with national power. At the time, Iran's human rights record was not ideal, which made the Carter governmentInternal disagreements have made Carter hesitant to support Pahlavi's suppression of the opposition.
The hesitant attitude of the Carter government caused catastrophic consequences for Pahlavi and others. By 1978, Iran's opposition movement spread across the country, and Pahlavi had fallen into the sea of the masses. At this time, Pahlavi had never been able to getThe U.S. government clearly instructed that decision-making swayed from side to side, the army was hesitant, and the bureaucracy was distracted.
September 8, 1978, during a demonstration in Tehran, the army fired warnings and invalidated the fire. Finally, it opened fire on the people who continued to move, killing 89 people. Khomeini, who has been in exile, began to publicize the government massacre.4,000 civilians.
At a critical moment, the Carter government sent a special envoy to the Iranian army, emphasizing the need to avoid the outbreak of civil war in Iran. Therefore, the army did not dare to act rashly and adopt a neutral attitude.
On November 6, Pahlavi spoke on Iranian television, apologizing for the mistakes made during the rule, and pledged to open the party ban, fight corruption, and create a democratic coalition government.
Khomeini took the opportunity to upset the masses and declared that the US government no longer supports Pahlavi's "soft egg". At this time, the news of Pahlavi's cancer was exposed, and the masses were even more convinced that Americans could not support this soon after.King's supporters, Pahlavi's supporters also turned away.
In January 1979, Pahlavi was forced to flee Iran on the grounds of a "long vacation". At this time, a power vacuum appeared in Iran, and hundreds of thousands of well-equipped troops fell into a state without heads. Some troops and officials immediately turned away.
Some people think that cancer has defeated Pahlavi's will to fight. Pahlavi in exile has turned many countries to cure disease, but he still maintains a naive and optimistic mind. He believes that this is a repeat of the 1953 coup. The United States willEmbracing his son as the new king.
However, what he didn't expect was that the second oil crisis broke out in 1979, the United States fell into stagflation again, and President Carter had no time to take care of the Iranian issue. What is more urgent is to increase the employment rate as soon as possible and promote economic recovery to win re-election.
In addition, European and American countries are too aware of the fate of the dictator's modernization. As early as more than 100 years ago, French economist Bascia came to the UK to promote anti-grain law movements with Cobden and Bright. ManchesterismEconomic liberalism will end colonialism.
A market economy that depends on free trade requires a system that protects justice, freedom, and private rights. National modernization is an end, not a means, but a dictator monarch sees it as a means to strengthen governance. In the end, national modernization reforms spawnedFree thoughts, personal forces, and power demands, constantly challenge the sphere of influence of the dictator monarch.
1960s, American political scientist Huntington pointed out this problem more clearly in "Political Order in a Changing Society". He believes that the political system of modern traditional monarchy countries will fall into a "fundamentalDilemma ": On the one hand, traditional monarchs had to modernize in order to pursue legitimacy; on the other hand, the success of modernization weakened the legitimacy of the monarchy.
When Pahlavi fell into this dilemma, the self-insurance methods he used were almost self-destructive: on the one hand, he further promoted liberalization policies, and on the other hand, he controlled political power and oil interests.
Pahlevi confessed before his death: "One of my fatal mistakes was to blindly follow the West and believe in American friendship. I let the country practice democracy and modernization beyond what he can accept."
Actually, the downfall of the Pahlavi dynasty is the inevitable end of national modernization, but Pahlavi's stupidity has accelerated this process. European and American countries have seen too many monarchy dictatorship governments to fall, they usually choose to follow the trend, and the otherChoose more powerful political forces to cooperate. In the past, there was the downfall of the National Government, and today the downfall of the Pahlavi dynasty, followed by the downfall of the Argentine and South Korean military governments.
However, this time the Americans took care, and the Iranians were also negligent. What they didn't expect was that the revolution sent away a monarch but ushered in a "God."
Revolutionary progress or not, you can't look at the process, you can only look at the results. Because the process is always full of blood, violence and lies.
The Iranian Islamic Revolution of 1979 gave Iranians and the world an illusion: This is a progressive revolution.
At that time, there were many revolutionary factions and complicated crowds, including left-wing parties, nationalists, constitutional liberals, middle class, farmers, and Uzbekistan. It was not just Shia led by Khomeini. However, leaders of various factionsThey all screamed for freedom and equality.
Many Iranians participating in the revolution believe that as long as Iran ends its monarchy, it will be better than it is now whether it adopts the Western road or the establishment of the Islamic State. The dignitaries and elites of the British and American countries are likely to have produced a "progressive revolution".illusion.
After Pahlavi's exile, Bakhtiar, the constitutional liberal leader, formed an interim government. He declared that democratically elected national leaders and implemented constitutional government. Almost everyone believes that Khomeini will notGet involved in politics and not interested in the regime.
In fact, most Shiites in Iraq and traditional Shiites in Iran hardly interfere in secular government affairs. Khomeini has repeatedly stated in Western media that "Shia religious leaders are not going to rule others."
In November 1978, when Khomeini was interviewed by the Associated Press, Associated Press, and the British Guardian, they all stated clearly: "Personal wishes, age, and my health do not allow me to govern."I don't want to have power or government control. I'm not interested in power. "Some Western media even touted Khomeini as a" Washingtonian hero "who fought for Iran's freedom and fame.
In this way, the well-thought-out, nearly 80-year-old man deceived everyone. On February 1, 1979, Khomeini ended his 14-year exile and returned to Iran. The Air France captain personally helped Khomeini get off the plane.Tens of thousands of believers came to greet him at the time. Khomeini delivered a speech promising the Iranians that Iran would usher in an elected government, priests would not do anything, and everyone would have free telephone, electricity, heating and buses. "No one will be in this country.Homeless ".
However, as soon as he returned to Iran, Khomeini immediately attacked his allies, and first publicly opposed the interim government that was first formed by Bakhtiar, saying: "I appoint a government, and I will appoint a government that is popular with the people."Just 10 days after returning home, Khomeini appointed Bazargan as Prime Minister of the interim government and asked the people: "You must be loyal to him." He even issued a warning: "This is the government of Allah", whoever defies this government isDefy Allah.
Khomeini first stabilized the army, neutralized the army, and then vigorously developed believers as private troops. When Khomeini rose, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards fell to Khomeini and bloody suppression of constitutional liberals and opponents,Bakhtiar fled to France assassinated by Iranian agents in Paris in 1991. Unbelieving and godless left-wing parties were quickly wiped out. A large number of senior military and political officials of the old regime were imprisoned or executed, and royal property was confiscated, The rich have fled.
In March of the same year, Khomeini declared publicly: "Don't talk to me about democracy, that's the Western style", "No West, no East, just Islam."
Khomeini launched Islamic Fundamentalism to fully Islamicize Iran.
Khomeini repealed the "Family Protection Law" promulgated by the Pahlavi dynasty, adopting the Eras law, forcing women to cover their hair, prohibiting smoking and drinking, swimming for men and women; requiring primary and secondary schools and universities to suspend classes,The teacher team has been reorganized. All courses have been prepared by the "Islamic University Board" and all Western books and movies have been investigated. The legal age of marriage for girls has been reduced to 9 years, and married women are not allowed to attend classes in ordinary schools.
One or two months ago, the revolutionary women who were cheering for joy were stunned. On March 8th, International Women's Day, large-scale demonstrations broke out in Tehran women. They held up the slogans and used Persian and English.It reads: "We must be equal," "the liberation of women is the liberation of society."
At the time, the women in the parade were still smiling and didn't feel that they would wear black gauze and robes for a long time. The opening of the Pahlavi era is gone forever.
On March 31, the Islamic Republic was established by referendum. From Pahlavi's exile to the establishment of the Islamic State, but in just two and a half months, Westerners, Iranians, and the world have not responded yet. Iran has completely enteredThe Khomeini era of the integration of politics and religion.
Khomeini ranks the United States and Israel as Iran ’s number one enemy. He calls on the Revolutionary Guards and religious people to smash all Coca-Cola, McDonalds, bars, cafes, casinos and entertainment venues with Western culture.
In October, Pahlavi in exile went to the United States to treat cancer, which angered Iranian believers. On November 4, Khomeini instigated tens of thousands of believers to rush into the U.S. Embassy and hold 66 staff members hostage. ThisThis is the Iran hostage incident that shocked the world.
After the incident, the US government and the government uproared, President Carter immediately sanctioned Iran, terminated the import of oil from Iran, and frozen US $ 8 billion of Iranian assets in the United States. Iran proposed conditions for the release of hostages, including the repatriation of Pahlavi in exile in the United States., Apologized to Iran for coup d'état in 1953.
When the diplomacy between the two countries was at an impasse, President Carter ordered U.S. special forces to launch a hostage rescue operation. At 22:00 on April 24, 1980, the U.S. nuclear power carrier Nimitz approached Iranian waters, with eight helicopters carrying 180 commandos, Went straight to Tehran to rescue the hostages.
However, during the flight, three helicopters were left behind due to a sandstorm in the desert. President Carter immediately cancelled the rescue mission. What's worse, the helicopter collided with a transport plane during the evacuation process. The next day, the US government told the outside worldPublic rescue plan failed.
The failure of the hostage rescue directly led to Carter's reelection defeat. President Reagan reached an agreement with Iran as soon as he took office. On January 20, 1981, U.S. Embassy personnel were held captive for 444 days and finally released.
The Iran hostage incident is a shame and shame for the United States. Since then, the United States and Iran have become enemies of enemies. However, Khomeini gained considerable political capital in this incident, and his domestic prestige burst. However, Khomeini's ambitionsFar more than that, he tried to transcend the concept of the state to unify Muslims and export the Islamic revolution to the whole world. He claimed: "The establishment of Islamic countries around the world is a great goal of the revolution."
Khomeini chose Iraq as the first target of revolutionary output. Iraq was the birthplace of Shiites, accounting for 55% of the population, but most believers did not participate in politics. At that time, Iraq was run by Sunni Saddam Hussein.Sein controls the regime. Khomeini has been in exile in Iraq for more than ten years, has many believers, and has a better chance to launch the Islamic Revolution. Saddam tried to attack Iran while Khomeini was not stable.
September 22, 1980, the Iran-Iraq war broke out. Neither country had thought that this war would be eight years. The Soviet Union, the United States, Britain, France and China all sold weapons to both countries. This war is consideredIt was "fighting the most primitive war with the most advanced weapons." Because the soldiers of the two countries were of low quality, they would basically not use the advanced weapons provided by the United States and the Soviet Union, and sometimes they could only fall into brutal hand-to-hand combat.
What everyone did not expect was that while the US President Reagan sold weapons to Iraq, he also secretly delivered to Iran. On November 4, 1986, at the seventh anniversary of the Iran hostage incident, Iranian Speaker Rafsoni announced thatThe US President ’s Assistant to National Security Affairs McFarlane had a secret visit to Tehran. The two sides reached a deal. The United States provided Iran with arms. The United States asked Iran to help release the American hostages who had been hijacked in Lebanon.
It is unacceptable to Americans that President Reagan took the initiative to show his goodness to Iran and presented Iranian officials with a signed autographed Reagan Bible, a key-shaped cake symbolizing the opening of US-Iranian relations.
This is the famous "Iran Gate." This incident brought almost a devastating blow to Reagan's administration. Reagan argued that improving relations with Iran mainly prevented Iran from falling to the Soviet camp during the Iran-Iraq war. However, ReaganA televised address to Camp David across the country acknowledged that "there are flaws in the implementation of Iran's policy and mistakes have been made."
Since then, the U.S. Congress has issued a 690-page investigation report with an investigation cost of nearly $ 8 million. The report states that senior federal officials deceived the public and despised legal proceedings. This case was subsequently transferred to the United States judiciary for trial. Eventually,John Poindexter, principal director and presidential adviser on national security affairs, was sentenced to 6 months in prison by the Washington District Court.
The "Iran Gate" has a huge impact on American politics. Since then, a tough attitude toward Iran has become a "political correctness" for the two parties in the United States. No president dares to touch this minefield.
The Iran-Iraq war ended under the mediation of the United Nations in August 1988. This was a war that lost both lives, killing 180,000 people in Iraq and 350,000 people in Iran. The economies of the two countries were dragged down by the war and the society fell into disastrous conditions.Reconstruction. However, the leaders of both countries each declared victory in the war.
Both countries lost the war, but Saddam and Khomeini won the prestige of the rule. In the Iran-Iraq war, Khomeini vigorously promoted the Fakih system and fully implemented Islamization in the judicial, parliament, administrative and economic fieldsIran has a president, a parliament, and a court on the surface, but the supreme clergy is the Iranian ruler who controls judicial, administrative, and military powers under the guardianship of Fakih.
Khomeini killed several Grand Ayatollahs, controlled the Religious Committee and the Revolutionary Guards, promoted Khamenei to Ayatollah, and put them on the presidential seat.
Khomeini nationalized most private assets during the Iran-Iraq war. Currently, 85% of the Iranian economy is under official and semi-official control, and the Iranian Islamic Foundation and Revolutionary Guards control a large number of economic interests.
This structural contradiction has led to slow economic growth in Iran. Iranians complain about a decline in living standards, and Khomeini claims: "The economy is a fool," and "religion is higher than material."
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A hardcore learning club listening to hard lessons, reading hard books, and reading hard texts
A hardcore learning club listening to hard lessons, reading hard books, and reading hard texts
A hardcore learning club listening to hard lessons, reading hard books, and reading hard texts
There is no novel science on Earth, all on Mars 1.
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