How does the Large Hadron Collider crash out of the “Big Bang”? This is a manual, simple and rough
Large hadron collider is a 'new physics' mechanism device for particle physics scientists to explore new particles and microscopic quantification particles. It is a high energy physics device that accelerates protons to collide.
What is the snack in your hand made? What ingredients are there! What are the ingredients of this drink? We like to ask such questions in life, just as often as asking how a thing comes. ButScientists want to ask: What is the composition of the universe? What is its composition? This question is also reasonable, but it is very difficult to answer this question. We need to use the most powerful machine in human history, the large hadron pair.Collision. Let's talk today about how this machine studies the basic components of the universe? And what is it looking for?
When we are involved in revealing what the universe itself is made of, at a basic level, we have always thought that the solution to this problem is to directly and simply break down matter into more and moreSmall fragments. In fact, this is basically the case. When we decompose matter, there are very small components in it: first, the substance is composed of molecules, and the molecules are composed of atoms.Then quark and gluon form the nucleus.
You will find that there are other elementary particles in the standard model and even the universe that do not exist in the matter that constitutes us at all. But thankfully, we can adopt a method that uses Einstein's E = mc^ 2, to create any possible basic particles in the universe. As long as enough energy is collected in a region of time and space, any substance allowed by the universe can be produced. The implication is that as long as the energy is sufficient, even if it is created in the early stage of the universeWe can create some strange particles.
This is exactly what the particle accelerator and the Large Hadron Collider LHC have been doing for nearly a century. In 2013, after the discovery of the 'God Particle', the Large Hadron Collider was shut down and upgraded, two years laterI restarted and continued to run at higher energy levels. I hope to solve the problem of supersymmetric particles. I will shut down and upgrade again in 2019. It is expected to restart in 2021. This way, the only purpose is to hit higher energy. Put us on the universe.The understanding of what can happen in the world has been raised to an unprecedented level. The particle collider needs only five simple steps to study the basic components of the universe.
Everything is related to energy.
E in the famous E = mc ^ 2 equation is what it means. The more energy available, the greater the mass of particles produced. Because the speed of light c is a constant, the larger E means the more mLarge. So our goal is not to split a single particle into smaller entities, but to create one that contains as many energy events or a single point of interaction as possible.
It is actually very simple in theory. What kind of particles we can or will are limited only by the energy we create them. So we have been working hard to reach the highest energy at a single point of interaction.; This is our goal. How does LHC do it?
Accelerates two large elementary particles to the highest energy.
This means that we need to use elementary particles to obtain high energy: either electrons or quarks and gluons inside protons. When we discuss an "event" with a certain energy, we are talking about two elementary particlesInteraction produces energy for new particles.
In the Large Hadron Collider, the way to obtain energy is to accelerate two charged particles two protons to get as close to the speed of light as possible. One each clockwise and counter-clockwise, and then let them collide with each other to get the maximumEnergy. If we want to bring a charged particle closer to the speed of light, there are only three things to consider :
How big is the acceleration ring that the particles pass through? The bigger the better
How strong is the magnetic field that accelerates and bends the charged particles? The stronger the better
The last point is very important. The ring-shaped acceleration of electron-containing particles in a magnetic field will emit electromagnetic radiation and lose energy. Therefore, we need to consider that before particles can lose energy in the magnetic field at a faster rate than particles can accelerate, theFast speed? This depends on the mass of the particles, the magnetic field of the ring and the cross section of the particles.
The acceleration ring used by the Large Hadron Collider is by far the largest, with a circumference of about 27 kilometers, and it also has the strongest electromagnet to date. Although the protons conform to particles, this means that the energy will be in three quarks.And an indeterminate number of gluons and "sea quarks", but greater mass means that they can reach higher energy than electrons only 1/1836 of the mass of a proton before emitting extreme radiation.Simply put, it is that protons are less likely to emit electromagnetic radiation than electrons, and the energy they can obtain is higher.
In the large positron collider LEP before LHC, its energy reached 114 GeV, GeV is one billion electron volts 10 ^ 9 eV. Fermilab former energy record holder atA proton / antiproton collision was performed at 2tev trillion electron volts, or 10 ^ 12 eV, and the LHC reached a proton-proton collision of 7tev in the first run, which was later broken at 13tevEnergy record.
But energy doesn't let us get everything!
We must also detect all possible particles produced by the collision in order to accurately reproduce what was created.
Most of the particles that hit each other in the collider will not hit, because the protons are very small, only 10 ^ -15 meters in diameter. But when they really hit each other, the effect is very chaotic!
Quarks are everywhere, leading to high-energy particle ejection, and new particles are created in a chaos at the same time, but almost all of the "novelty" particles created will decay in very small moments.
Therefore, we have no other way but to quickly detect all the generated things, including their charge, energy, momentum, mass, etc., and then try to reconstruct the material created at the collision point.
Technically speaking, this is an incredible task. We need to link a dozen bus-sized detectors together in order to piece together proton-sized material fragments! For data acquisition, thisIt is also a very difficult task, because collisions are very frequent in the collider, but we only record about one millionth of the collision data, which means throwing away 99.9999% of the data. So we have a standard database asBy comparison, this will discard "known" substance data. If some data is not found in the database, these data will be saved, which may be new substances.
So we build these huge machines, make collisions, record data, and analyze. So what are we looking for?
Compare the overall data obtained with our expected universe data.
The picture above is a standard model of basic particles. Each of these particles was found experimentally and was directly detected by some means or method. The last particle found was the Higgs boson,It was discovered when the LHC first ran in 2012.
The problem is that each of these particles based on electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions should interact and decay with all other particles in a specific, known way. The standard model for particleThe predictions of interactions and properties are very clear, so when we measure the properties of each particle, we are actually testing our most basic laws of nature. Now, the theory of the standard model is completely consistent with all our observations that is, within the experimental range.
But there are still some problems that physics cannot explain at present, including :
Why is the neutrino mass small rather than zero? The standard model predicts that it has no mass, so there may be other undiscovered particles that give the neutrino mass.
Why do we see cp violations in weak rather than strong interactions? Lack of strong cp symmetry breaking
Why are the masses of particles so much smaller than Planck's mass? 4.341 micrograms It is predicted that the particles in the standard model may have supersymmetric partner particles.
Why is there more matter in the universe than antimatter?
All questions indicate imperfect standard models, or new particles, or new interactions, or additional dimensions. The answers to these questions may remain a mystery for a long time. But large and strongSub Colliders may also find them! This leads to the last and most exciting point ...
Large Hadron Collider is exploring the unknown and looking for new and basic components for our universe picture.
If the static mass of dark matter is lower than 1tev, then the LHC should be able to see its definite signal. If supersymmetry SUSY is the reason that the mass of the particles is much smaller than Planck scale, then we should at leastFind a SUSY particle. If there are more than one Higgs particle, the LHC should be able to find at least one. If the key to matter / antimatter asymmetry lies in electroweak physics, then the Large Hadron Collider LHC should find thisa little.
It now seems that our current high-energy physics and cosmology really place hopes on the large particle collider. Without it, we would not be able to study the problems that have not yet been solved.
We can't see what happened in the universe during the Big Bang, but we can create the Big Bang in the collider. The process is actually the same, but it requires more energy and already a larger investment. Modern physicsLearning is more complicated and confusing than we humans have ever imagined. That is to say, it is not that science in the 21st century is not as glorious as the 20th century, but that it is too difficult!
This is what the Large Hadron Collider is doing, how it does it, and what it is looking for!
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