Why can't the Australian fire extinguish?

2020-01-09 | Earth Knowledge Bureau original |

Australia's forest fire that has been burning for four months continues, and more than 1,400 kilometers of coastline are burning equivalent to the northeast all the way to Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai. The area of ​​wildfires has exceeded 72,000 square kilometers.At least 25 people were killed and millions of hectares of forest were destroyed. The destructive power is several times larger than the Amazon fire and California fire.

Burning 91 New York City is really amazing ▼

At the height of the forest fire, Australian Prime Minister Morrison went on vacation to Hawaii, USA. So even after he repeatedly promised that he would try his best to help firefighters put out the fire to make up for it, the people still did not forgive him.

However, the Prime Minister is not pitiful. The poor are the victims, the destroyed animals and plants, and the scorched earth in Australia.

Speaking again, why is this mountain fire inexhaustible like a hundred-episode series and cannot be extinguished?

Photo from: Jason Benz Bennee / Shutterstock.com ▼

"Fire Weather Zone"

In an article in early December, we have explained that the fire was born in the hot and dry summer of Australia, and the environment of flammable eucalyptus trees, and it was developed in a trivial environment of global warming.

Eucalyptus is gone, so is Koala

Photo from: wikipedia @ Arnaud Gaillard ▼

By mid-December, the forecast of the Australian weather forecast had become a reality. Most parts of the country were hit by a strong heat wave. Many places hit the hottest day on record. The national average maximum temperature was 41.9 degrees Celsius.50 degrees.

2019 is the hottest year in Australian history

Picture from: Australian Bureau of Meteorology ▼

It's just hot, this spring Spring in the Southern Hemisphere is still extremely dry.

Spring 2019 is the driest season in the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's 120-year rainfall record: the average rainfall in November was about 100 milliliters in the past, but only 18 milliliters this year. This has not only affected the country's important agricultural areas, but also mountainThe fire-ravaged area has contributed.

Recent rainfall seems to be expected to exceed the average

Looking forward, but the amount is far from enough

Picture from: Australian Bureau of Meteorology ▼

Under the strong winds in the northwest, the fire has been burning to the present day, hitting Australia ’s land. Although it rained on Monday to reduce the fire on the Australian east coast, this is nothing but a water drop; and there are predictions that the weatherDryness may continue to intensify, and temperatures will pick up again this weekend, fueling more than 130 fires across the country.

The fire that lasted for many months was mainly in southeast Australia

Australia's population and forests are also concentrated in this area

Photo from shutterstock @ Anton Shahrai ▼

Weather and climatic conditions are the basic conditions for the formation of a fire. The interaction between fire and nature has helped to intensify the fire.

Only in New South Wales, there are still more than 60 unsettled fires. The flame height in some places can reach 70 meters and the temperature can reach 1000 degrees Celsius; the smoke and heat generated by these intense and turbulent fires can be related to the atmosphereInteract with each other and absorb the moisture to form a huge rain cloud also called "fire cloud", which triggers weather phenomena such as thunderstorms and lightning, forming its own "small weather area."

High wind with fire

Raging in the Blue Mountains of NSW near Sydney

Photo from shutterstock @ Jason Benz Bennee ▼

During the movement of strong winds, these dangerous “small weather areas” can continue to spread fire through Mars, forming new ignition points. This phenomenon is also known as “ember attack.”

One stick after another, but endless

picture from: shutter @ elRoce ▼

This phenomenon often causes fires to spread like epidemics and let the nearby areas lay guns. For example, on January 1st, New South Wales firefighters encountered a more fierce "ember attack" when they drove to the rescue site.A lot of sparks were also scattered on the fire truck, and rescuers were quickly surrounded by flames and trapped inside.

A lot of firefighters have been sacrificed, this year's fire is too fierce

picture from: shutter @ 1234rf ▼

At the same time, "Fire Cloud" also gathers smoke and tiny particles ie aerosols into the low-level stratosphere similar to the phenomenon that occurs during a volcanic eruption, which seriously affects air quality.

Fire Cloud Evil God ...

Photo from shutterstock @ PhotosWarren ▼

It's so uncomfortable wearing a mask ...

picture from: shutter @ StarTiffy ▼

So as the fire spreads, Australia's air quality is not conspicuous under the influence of mountain fires and it has also polluted other countries.

Last weekend, wildfire smoke and dust flew over the Tasman Sea and floated on the North Island of New Zealand, making the sky here orange; today January 7, an earth satellite in the United States discovered that the Australian fire smoke began to permeate South America.

It's easy to cross the sea to New Zealand, it's a little bit worse to go to South America

picture from: shutter @ elRoce ▼

Volunteers are not enough to be wolf-like

After the fire started, the main force in fighting the fire was not the government, but tens of thousands of firefighters—but most of them were volunteers.

These volunteer firefighters have been working for several months. Some people even work 12 hours a day. The burns are countless. The pressure on them makes people start to question whether this country is too dependent on volunteers.

Without volunteers, the fire situation everywhere will not be saved

picture from: Wikipedia @ Helitak430 ▼

Relying on volunteers is actually a convention. Australia is a sparsely populated country with a limited number of full-time firefighters. Once a large-scale fire occurs, even if it is all out, it will be stretched.

In contrast, NSW has the world's largest voluntary fire service NSW Rural Fire Service, RFS, and its power is obviously much greater.

As the world's largest voluntary fire service agency

responsible for fire fighting in 95% of New South Wales' land area and Jervis Bay area

picture from: wikipedia @ Bidgee ▼

The predecessor of this institution was born in the background of frequent wildfires in NSW at the end of the 19th century. After a century of change, RFS was formed in 1997. Today it only employs less than 1,000 paid employees for senior operations and administrative positions.The main force is more than 74,000 volunteer firefighters. The total number in NSW is only 7.4 million. Excluding the disabled, this means that there are less than 100 people who have a fire fighting hero.

10 steps to become a fire volunteer

picture from: NSW Rural Fire Service ▼

As of June 30, 2018, the voluntary fire service responded to approximately 27,000 fire incidents each year and has become the main force of fire rescue.

Australia is clearly aware of the importance of this large group of people, and the federal government announced last week that fire rescue volunteers in New South Wales will receive thousands of dollars in compensation.

After long-term exercise, they are quite combative

Photo from shutterstock @ Saxon Vinkovic ▼

But considering the damage caused by the current fire to Australia and the fact that the fire season will take two months to pass, no matter how powerful the volunteers are, it will be difficult for them to deal with the destroyed homes.Announcing the deployment of military resources to help fire rescue.

Already volunteers have been killed in this fire

picture from: twitter @ NSWRFS ▼

Australia sent 3,000 army reserve personnel, warships and aircraft including the country's largest HMAS Adelaide to assist with evacuation and fire fighting, and leased four additional water bombers, the scale of resources usedGreat is the most since World War II.

picture from: twitter @ Australian_Navy ▼

With the help of army personnel, more than 6,000 residents and vacationers stranded in the coastal town of Mallacoota for four days due to the fire, arrived in Hastings near Melbourne on Saturday after sailing for 20 hours Hastings.

Look at home again before leaving

Malakota picture from: shutter @ Ted Perton ▼

High-level officials said that this is likely to be the largest peacetime maritime rescue operation in Australian history and also a symbol of the huge challenges Australia faces in disaster control and post-disaster rescue.

At this time, many domestic netizens' questions about "why Australia did not send troops earlier" should also be answered. After all, in China, the PLA generally rushes to the front line.

On the one hand, the Australian government does have a sluggish response, slow action, and insufficient attention to the disaster.

For example, the Prime Minister had a mood to take a holiday when the fire was strong, and shortened the day to return to China after the death of two volunteer firefighters and strong public opposition.Don't want to shake hands with him.

Specially opened a Twitter for Prime Minister Black ’s trip to Hawaii

picture from: twitter @ HawaiiScoMo ▼

On the other hand, Australia's Federal Work Health Safety Act 2011 Commonwealth has restricted the participation of Wehrmacht personnel in hill fire rescue. When disasters occur, states and territoriesRegional security and disaster relief operations have primary responsibility, and limited support from the National Defense Forces is available when the response is ineffective.

However, the Australian Defence Force has not received professional fire training and equipment, so it is not appropriate to participate in direct fire fighting operations outside the army. At the same time, Australian defence experts also said that because the army has other tasks in the Pacific and Southeast Asia, it is not necessarilyAbility to respond immediately to domestic natural crises.

The National Defense Force's fire fighting capacity may not be as good as volunteers

Although they are volunteers, they are also very professional in training

Photo from: shutter @ ARM Photo Video ▼

However, if a catastrophic fire in Australia becomes the "new normal" thereafter, the old military resource allocation model should obviously be broken.

Fire fighting methods are actually limited

A report from the BBC shows that approximately 3,000 volunteer firefighters are fighting fires every day; in the past month, the United States, Canada, and other countries have also dispatched personnel to assist.

picture from: twitter @ USAembassyinOZ ▼

In the case that the problem of personnel distribution has caused insufficient fire fighting, the fire fighting method is obviously crucial.

In response to small-scale ignition points, traditional fire fighting methods such as fire trucks and fire attacks are the main force, but because many single fires have burned more than 60 kilometers in the front line, the existence of ordinary fire trucks is reduced, so aircraft fire fighting plays a pivotal role.Role.

The belly is filled with water

Photo from shutterstock @ Ryan Fletcher ▼

Scout planes allow fire departments to directly detect whether there is a fire in a sparsely populated area. Helicopters can help people trapped in a fire point to withdraw directly, while water-fighting aircraft can directly affect the fire.

Fire on land hinders action

You can also drop firefighters to a rescue position by helicopter

Photo from: shutter @ ARM Photo Video ▼

Australia's National Air Fire Centre NAFC fleet owns most of the helicopters, and many of the rest are purchased from other fire fleets around the world. During the fire season, the NAFC fleet purchased 500 new aircraft, including oneA large DC-10 aerial tanker, and six "fire fighters" that draw water from rivers and lakes.

However, there is not enough water in the river due to prolonged drought

Photo from shutterstock @ Ryan Fletcher ▼

But in the actual application process, the Australian National Air Fire Centre NAFC fleet still feels inadequate response and believes that it is necessary to expand the purchase budget to deal with this year's hellish fire. However, the Australian government believes that the funding of these fleets should be provided byThe states themselves worked it out and refused to spend any budget on aircraft purchases.

This one after another is very expensive

Although Australia's per capita GDP is 6.5 times that of China

Photo from shutterstock @ Bumble Dee ▼

Airplanes are not enough. Will the other fire fighting methods work?

Artificial rainfall is a very popular method, but it is not suitable for use in Australia.

For artificial rainfall, water and clouds are needed first, both of which are scarce for dry Australia; and even if Australia has clouds, it is not the type suitable for raining: only when the clouds contain extremely cold-5-10 ° C But water droplets that cannot be converted into ice, but at the same time they are too small to be effective when their own precipitation falls, but Australia lacks such conditions.

where natural conditions allow

Putting chemicals on the clouds will cause rainfall

picture from: Wikipedia ▼

Artificial rain is not enough, and the call for building a fire lane is also high: create an area that is long and wide enough to prevent grass fires from spreading.

One method is to cut down or burn some trees to form a separation zone, but the problem is that the topography, population density, and other characteristics of each fired area are not the same. The temporary creation is too late. The Australian government obviously lacks this awareness if it is planned in advance.It is also not realistic to build a small-scale isolation zone by yourself. After all, it is difficult for the people to measure the combustion boundary by themselves.

Also needs regular training, temporary battles, fires do not wait for others

Photo from shutterstock @ JM Smith ▼

Another method is to establish a non-combustible boundary, which is achieved by spreading chemical flame retardants, etc. However, behind the raging mountain fire are unstable wind directions and weather conditions, and the flame retardant may decompose into a combustion accelerator at high temperatures., This is not worth the money.

Actually, animals can also help.

For example, in the California fire last year, the Reagan Presidential Library caught in the fire was eating 13 acres 5 hectares of flammable bushes by 500 hungry goats, which put a fire barrier around the library.To be preserved.

Grazing goats is a common method for removing highly flammable bushes, etc.

but a precautionary act before fire

Picture from: Zhao Gang143 / Picture Worm Creative ▼

However, the fire in Australia has already killed 500 million animals. If the animals can sense each other's life and death, I don't know if there will be sheep willing to come to help.

Look at the camel in South Australia

may not be seen in the future

Photo from: Wikipedia @ Jjron ▼

References :

http://www.nbcnews.com/science/environment/fire-clouds-ember-attacks-how-australia-s-fires-are-creating-n1111451

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-01/fire-fighters-survive-after-being-trapped-in-burning-fire-truck/11836474

http://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/04/world/australia/fires-military.html

http://simpleflying.com/how-planes-are-helping-the-australian-bush-fires/

http://www.cnet.com/how-to/australian-fires-everything-we-know-how-you-can-help-where-to-donate-fundraisers/

http://7news.com.au/news/environment/cloud-seeding-not-an-option-for-drought-ravaged-australia-c-562528

* The content of this article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of the Bureau of Earth Knowledge

Cover image from: shutter @ 1234rf / Shutterstock.com

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