Scientific Argument: Who is the Jaguar and Green Water Margin?
The jaguar, also called the jaguar, is the largest feline in the new world; and the green water salamander, also called the Morinda, is the heaviest snake in the world. In the new tropical ecosystem, the big cat is a top predator.There is a certain overlap in space and food with the big snake. The jaguar is notorious for living next to water, and the green water salamander is a semi-aquatic snake. The main prey of the jaguar is medium to large mammals.This kind of prey also accounts for a large proportion in large green leech recipes. Studies in the Venezuelan plains show that the two species overlap by 21%. These factors indicate that there is a gap between jaguar and green leech.Potential conditions for conflict.
Making reference to the interaction between Jaguars and Green Water Margins, many readers first think of the shot of the giant Jaguar killing the Jaguars in the cartoon "Haier Brothers", and some people say that the Jaguar often kills Green Water Margins.Scientific. Today we will talk about the interaction records of both parties.
Peruvian Jaguar encounters giant catfish incident
Let ’s start with the recent events in Peru. The Los Amigos Biological Research Station is a biological research station in the Amazon rainforest in southeastern Peru. It is located at the intersection of the Los Amigos and Madre de Dios rivers.The area is rich in lowland rainforest biodiversity and has been monitored by researchers at the biological station since 2000. Scholar Renata Pittman has been working at this research station for almost 20 years, and she released it last yearAn article about the interaction between jaguar and leech, according to the records, there was a very unusual interaction event.
△ the scene of the incident, the arrows indicate the missing head and tail
Early in the afternoon of December 1, 2004, when the researchers went on a field trip along the lake, they suddenly smelled an odor, and in the direction he found the source of the odor-that is the body of a giant green leech.Because the snake's head and tail are partially missing, its full length cannot be accurately measured, but the total length must be more than 5.2 meters. After careful inspection, the researchers found that the green water sturgeon had large sections in the front and back.His body tissue disappeared, apparently it was eaten by some animal. Along the spine near the skull is the focus on eating areas, a lot of meat has been eaten, and a lot of meat has been consumed in the front and back abdomen.
Further inspections revealed that this green water turtle died about 5 days ago. Now there are several questions in front of it. What animal ate the meat and how did such a large snake die? With these questions,Researchers continue to survey the site, and the above issues will soon have clues.
Researchers found a large jaguar with a length of 25 cm, which contains the hair that the jaguar swallowed by mistake when combing its hair. In addition, a resting place of jaguar was found nearby, which indicates thatThis big cat has eaten and slept here for several days in a row. Due to the low level of decay of the corpse of the green water turtle, it is difficult to confirm whether the giant snake died of the jaguar by autopsy, but there are many on the ground around the body.The traces indicate a battle has occurred.
△ Researcher performs autopsy on killed leech
Comparison of the body shapes of the two sides in the incident
Based on field evidence, it is not realistic to infer the size of the jaguar in the incident. We can only use the measured data of the jaguar in the region in the past literature for reference. Because the tropical forest of Madre de Dios is an extremely closed habitatThe only way to get here is by boat. The only way of land transportation after arrival is to walk on your own legs, so there is very little scientific research on this population of jaguar. So far the only scientific paper is byPublished by zoologist Louise Emmons in 1987, the article mentions a male and a female adult jaguar with radio collars. The female weighs 31 kg and the male weighs 37 kg.
In 2016, an adult male jaguar was captured in a private reserve near Puerto Maldonado. It weighed 54 kilograms. In order to prevent further contact between the big cat and humans, it was fitted.After the collar, the experts transferred the jaguar to a rain forest far from humans. From the three examples of weight currently, the jaguar here is quite small.
In sharp contrast to the petite Peruvian jaguar, the green water sturgeon here belongs to a relatively large population. First, the estimated green water stinger over 5.2 meters in this incident is likely to weigh more than 60 kg.Better than Jaguar in weight.
In previous years, Paul Rosolie worked with researchers at the local biological station to study green water sturgeons in the Peruvian rain forest. Their scientific team captured a total of 13 green water stings. The largest female snake was 5.97 meters in length., The weight reached 113 kg, although there is still a big gap from the largest record in history, but in the new century is already the largest individual captured by scientific research herpetologist Cesar Amoros once in VenezuelaThe Lanos steppe has caught 6.3 meters of individuals, but it was carefully treated before it was officially seen.
△ Science test 5.97 meters of green water pupae
History of Engagement
The earliest record of the conflict between Green Water Margin and Jaguars comes from the British explorer and travel writer Paul Fontaine. Fontaine has begun his adventures in South America since 1884. In 1902 he publishedAlpine and dense forests of the Americas. In this book, Fang Dan introduces what he saw and heard during the trip, and also includes some wild animals. Green water salamander is one of the animals he mentioned.
In Pastúsbons, southeast of Maranhao, Brazil, Fontaine found the body of a jaguar. According to his speculation, the body showed signs that it might have been strangled by green water crickets. HeIt is also judged that the serpent tried to swallow the jaguar, but it was too difficult to swallow it. Today it is difficult to verify the reliability of this record. After all, Mr. Fang Dan was not a professional naturalist, not to mention that people's cognitive systems of animals in those daysImmature, we don't know if he has enough relevant knowledge and evidence to support his judgment.
△ Jaguar kills Huang Shuiyu
In addition, in the 1986 article by scholars Mandolfi and Hoogesteijn, an example of a jaguar preying on a green leech was taken in the Lanos steppe in Venezuela. The above two plus a total of three mentioned aboveIt is all the conflict records that have been recorded so far. It can be seen that there is very little interaction between Green Water Margin and Jaguar. The top predators are usually rare and tend to avoid each other. This result does not seem to be disturbing.Unexpected. Another factor is that the observation of the rainforest environment is difficult, and some interactions are indeed difficult to record by humans.
Do jaguar often prey on leech?
More than a hundred years ago, Fang Dan put forward in his book that the jaguar loves snake meat and often prey on leech. However, the current jaguar diet research shows that this statement may not be true.
△ Jaguar kills Huang Shuiyu
The literature on jaguar food habits is not uncommon, but we rarely see leech in the recipes of jaguar in various regions. The only appearance was a 2010 study by scholar Cavalcanti, the research team investigatedThe prey composition of 10 jaguars in southern Pantanal, Brazil, from 2001 to 2004, a total of 438 predators had only appeared once, accounting for only a negligible 0.2%. This is a juvenile leech, It is not clear whether it is a larger green leeches or a smaller yellow leeches.
Of course, Brazil's Pantanal is the most thoroughly studied and most eco-tourist region in Jaguar. Under the best observation conditions, there have been several sporadic incidents of jaguar predation by Yellow Jasmine in recent years. 2 of themIt was shot for a wildlife photographer, and the remaining one was captured by a trap camera at night. However, considering the total number of jaguar predators, the leech is obviously an extremely rare prey, and the main target of the kill is yellow water leech instead of yellow leech.Green water puppet.
Now we are back to the place where the last interaction between Jaguar and Green Water Margin—the Madre de Dios region in southeastern Peru. What is the preference of the jaguar's prey in this mysterious lowland rain forest,Does it conform to the image of snake meat lovers in Fang Dan's mouth?
Louis Emmons collected the feces of three feline species of jaguar, cougar and tiger cat in the tropical rain forest of the region from 1982 to 1984. Preliminary analysis revealed the feces of the three local felines through a fecal analysis.The results show that terrestrial mammals are the most important prey of jaguar 50%, and the larger mammals are the main species, among which the collar turtle eats the most 15%, followed by the agouti 10%.; Reptiles also occupy a very important position in jaguar recipes, accounting for 32.5% in total, with the largest proportion of yellow-legged tortoises 15%, followed by Caimans 7.5%.
Jaguar mother and daughter "Tug of War" Huang Shuiyu
And in the column of snakes, the intake of jaguar is zero. To the extent of the enthusiasm for snakes, this big cat is obviously not the same as the other two felines in the region. Tiger cats account for snake food.Than 5%, and in a limited number of puma samples from puma, 2 snakes appeared in 12 prey analyzed.?
Direct conversations between top predators are often uncommon, this interaction is more dangerous than normal ecological behavior, but it is undeniable that once you win in this confrontation, the winner will likely get considerableAs the top predator in the neotropical region, jaguar and green water dwelling live in the same area, and there is a certain degree of overlap in prey selection, then what is the frequency of interaction between the two, which contributed to its occurrenceWhat are the various factors, and to what extent does this type of interaction affect the population dynamics and hunting patterns of jaguar and green sturgeon?
Compared with some well-researched regions such as the United States and South Africa, research in this area in the neotropical region can be said to be disproportionately scarce, so this series of topics needs more research work to solve. Scholar LeiNata and others have installed radio transmitters for some of the local green water stings, which is believed to help researchers better understand the ecological relationship between green water stings and jaguars.
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