How did Taiwan's economy develop after 1949?

2020-01-16 | Zhibensha original |

After losing Taiwan in 1949, Chiang Kai-shek urgently needed to solve economic problems in order to quickly establish a foothold on the island.

At that time, Taiwan's industrial foundation and infrastructure were weak. During the Japanese occupation period, the island was dominated by agriculture and light industry, and industrial capacity supply was seriously inadequate. Take Taiwan's industrial pillar spinning industry as an example. In 1948, the entire Taiwan spindle was only about 10,000More than 5,000 spindles, and at that time Rongjia moved to Taiwan with 15,000 spindles.

Taiwan authorities will nationalize and resell some 167 large factories in Taiwan in 43 categories and nearly a thousand Japanese companies during the Japanese occupation period. Chiang Kai-shek hopes to maintain good relations with local chaebols and squires.

At the time in Taiwan, the Lugang Gu family, the Keelung family, the Banqiao Lin family, the Kaohsiung Chen family, and the Wufeng Lin family were the five largest local families. These families all originated during the Japanese occupation period and became Taiwan through political and commercial relations and land control.Synonymous with the rich.

Among them, the Lugang Gu family is the first of the five major families, and has a deep root in Taiwan and a powerful force.

Gu Xianrong, the founder of the Gu family, ran the sugar and coal businesses in the Taiwan Straits in the late Qing Dynasty and supplied coal to Zhang Zhidong's Westernization enterprises during the Sino-Japanese War.

After the defeat of the Sino-Japanese War, Sino-Japanese sacrifice to the Maguan Treaty ceded Taiwan, the Qing Army and the imperial court collectively withdrew from the mainland, and the Japanese army took over to take over, which was met with fierce resistance from the local people in Taiwan. For a time Taipei was in chaos and the situation was in danger.Gu Xianrong was elected to negotiate with the Japanese. Gu Xianrong left the city alone to welcome the Japanese army into the city for peace talks.

Kou Xianrong was the first person to cooperate with the Japanese army at that time, and was called "traitor" by the locals. The Taiwanese compiled a ballad to taunt him: "Japanese 50,000 soldiers went to the mountain and saw the surname Gu before his head.To Taipei, regardless of Ruan Niang's old relationship. "

After being reused by the Japanese army, Gu Xianrong ’s power expanded rapidly, and the island ’s political and commercial power was no less than that of the Governor. During the Japanese occupation period, Gu ’s industry covered salt, sugar, opium, fisheries, camphor, railways, docks, and fields.It is all-inclusive and mostly monopolized. Guangliangtian has more than 6,000 hectares, Yantian has more than 300 hectares, and also owns private trains and freighters.

In 1935, Gu Xianrong came to the mainland to meet Chiang Kai-shek and advocated Japanese-Chinese friendship. Two years later, Japan launched the war of aggression against China, and Gu Xianrong died in Tokyo.

After Gu Xianrong's death, the Gu family broke the tradition of spreading legends. The 20-year-old second-door son Gu Zhenfu inherited the family business. At this time, Gu Zhenfu was a freshman at the National Taiwan University, but he was also the chairman of seven companies..

After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War for eight years, the National Government took over Taiwan, and the Gu family burned the biography of Gu Xianrong Weng to avoid the liquidation of rape.

1947, Gu Zhenfu, the heir to the Gu family, was still arrested for "conspiring for Taiwan independence and splitting the country." Also arrested at the same time were Lin Xiongxiang and Lin Xiongzheng of the Banqiao Lin family. They were held in the same temple.in.

More than a year later, Chiang Kai-shek saw that the situation had gone and quickly withdrew to Taiwan. In order to restore relations with the local forces, the Taiwan authorities released Gu Zhenfu and the Lin family brothers.

Gu Zhenfu and Lin Xiongxiang ate a prison meal together, it was considered a fatal relationship. After he came out, Lin confided his niece, Yan Jiyun, to Gu Zhenfu, and the two families of Gu Lin formed an alliance. Yan Jiyun was the granddaughter of Yan Fu, a great thinker in the late Qing Dynasty, and had a close relationship with Song MeilingAt the same time, the Lin family and Sheng Xuanhuai's family in the late Qing Dynasty were also relatives. After marrying Yan Yunyun, Gu Zhenfu's life entered an open mode.

Jiang Jieshi hopes to quickly revitalize Taiwan's economy with the help of Gu Lin and other local chaebols.

In the early 1950s, the Taiwan authorities implemented a land reform with "farmers have their fields", and purchased large-scale family land to appease the local farmers in Taiwan. In addition to cash purchases, the Taiwan authorities also used cement and paper to take over from the Japanese army.The stocks of the four major companies: forestry, forestry, industry and mining are replaced with landlords. The replacement price is 2.5 times the annual output value of the land, and the total price is close to NT $ 2.2 billion.

Gu Zhenfu realizes that land replacement stocks are the trend of Taiwan's economic industrialization transformation, and he took the lead in replacing the Gu family's land with Taiwan Cement stocks. This example was appreciated by the Taiwan authorities and also laid the foundation for Gu Zhenfu's Taiwan mud business..

The young Gu Zhenfu not only inherited his father ’s business talents, but also extended the political and commercial relations of the Gu family. Gu Zhenfu actively developed "economic diplomacy" using the Taiwan Chamber of Commerce and Industry as a platform in the US-Japan-Taiwan relationship.It ’s like water.

However, Taiwan's economic revitalization is far from enough to rely on local family forces such as Gu Lin. At that time, Chiang Kai-shek, who was unwilling, implemented political coercion on the island, eager to rejuvenate the economy, and devoted himself to "counterattacking the country."

It is worth mentioning that Chiang Kai-shek has always maintained the national justice and clearly opposed the Taiwan independence movement. He said: "China's affairs can be resolved by the Chinese people themselves."

Unstable footing and high political pressure have made everyone in Taiwan's political world endanger themselves. Some veterans said they went to the United States to go to the United States without anyone worrying about production and management. At that time, Taiwan's political bureaucrats had a mantra: "Do less, don't make mistakes, don't do well."

However, at this moment, one person dares to stand up and shoulder the heavy burden, he is Yin Zhongrong.

Yin Zhongrong, born in Shaoyang, Hunan Province, is an official family. Shaoyang, Hunan Province, is a land of talents and people. In modern times, Wei Yuan, Cai Yan, Liao Yaoxiang, Jiang Tingyun, He Lian and other outstanding talents were born.

Yin's can be described as Shuxiang Mendi, belonging to the famous family in Shaoyang and Shaodong. Yin Zhongrong's grandfather was a prince of the Qing Dynasty. He used to be the chief of the Ministry of Criminal Affairs in the Guangxu period. His father Yin Guangxun served as the county head in Jiangxi in the early period of the Republic of China.

When I first came to Jiangxi to become an official, Yin Guangxun married Shi Shouzhen. This is a woman who was the first to open the age. She founded the earliest Zhengmeng Girls' School in Jiangxi during the Guangxu period and has been the principal for 24 years. Yin Zhongrong founded it with her mother.The school not only learns Confucius and Mencius, but also receives Western education.

Yin Zhongrong is a master of both Chinese, Western, and liberal arts. He graduated from the Department of Electrical Engineering at Nanyang University at the age of 22. He has a degree in engineering and has written "Engineering Mathematics" and "Electromagnetism". He has also written many economics papers., And also wrote a note on "Lu's Spring and Autumn" and wrote "A Chronicle of Guo Song's."

Yin Zhongrong's talent was appreciated by Song Ziwen. By Song's invitation, he joined China Construction Bank Corporation and was responsible for presiding in hydropower investment and development.

After going to Taiwan, Chiang Kai-shek promoted Yin Zhongrong to the position of director of Taiwan's "Central Trust Bureau" and deputy director of the Production Management Committee Chen Cheng is the director, mainly responsible for restructuring the Taiwan economy.

When Yin Zhongrong was under heavy pressure and unable to grasp everything, the Korean War broke out and the United States assisted Taiwan. Yin Zhongrong seized the opportunity of US aid to quickly support the food, clothing, housing, transportation, and necessities necessary to create the people's livelihood in Taiwan.Import substitution industry. By the end of 1952, Taiwan's economic indicators had reached the highest level during the Japanese occupation period, and the economy was stabilizing.

In 1953, Yin Zhongrong became the convener of the Industrial Commission under the Taiwan Economic Stability Committee, and presided over the formulation of Taiwan's industrial development plan, including design, planning, financing, and auxiliary plant establishment.

In the second year, Yin Zhongrong became the Minister of Economy. At this time, economists Liu Dazhong and Jiang Shuojie put forward suggestions for Yin Zhongrong from the Chicago School. As early as 1948, when the National Government was trapped in the quagmire of inflation, Hu Shi had recommended to Chiang Kai-shek and Weng Wenji.Past Jiang Shuojie and Liu Dazhong.

Both of them have worked in the International Monetary Fund and played an important role in Taiwan's land reform and tax reform. Their advice to Yin Zhongrong is to develop a "planned free market economy", promote the marketization of public utilities, and change their practices.High interest rates, fighting inflation, reforming the exchange rate, and encouraging exports.

The historian Yu Yingshi once said in 1999: "Taiwan's economy has today. At that time twenty years ago all said" six academicians ", namely Liu Dazhong, Jiang Shuojie, Xing Muhuan, Zou Zhizhuang, Gu Yingchang, Fei Jinghan.Wait for six people to make contributions. "

However, Yin Zhongrong's "privatization of the public economy" policy harmed the interests of the nobles and suffered retaliation.

In 1955, Yin Zhongrong resigned from all posts in the Yangzi Timber Company loan case and was accused of court. Jiang Jieshi came forward to try to protect Yin Zhongrong, but the Supreme Procuratorate insisted on prosecuting Yin Zhongrong.

This made Chiang Wife extremely angry. He wrote in his diary: "Talk to Yin Xiu Chen Cheng about the case of Yin and Hu, approve his appeal policy, and criticize the unscrupulous members of the legislative and supervisory courts, and criticize Zhang Bayu ...With warning. "

After more than a year, the truth of the case was made clear, and Yin Zhongrong was acquitted and reused. This time, Yin Zhongrong also served as Secretary-General of the Economic Stability Committee, Director of the Foreign Trade Review Committee, Deputy Chairman of the US Aid Application Committee, and Chairman of the Bank of Taiwan, etc.He is in charge of controlling US aid, foreign trade, banking, and foreign exchange. At the time, he was known as Taiwan ’s "economic tsar."

In 1960, Yin Zhongrong published an important long article "Review and Prospects of Taiwan's Economic Development in the Past Decade". He believed that "the biggest failure of Taiwan's economic development in the past ten years has not been to launch a comprehensive reform.".

This article has a profound impact on Taiwan's economy and has set the tone for Taiwan's comprehensive economic reform.

At that time, Keynesianism was still prevalent in European and American countries. Some people suggested that Yin Zhongrong adopt the economic theory of consumption promotion and investment. However, Yin Zhongrong still insisted on the direction of planned free economy. He believes that Keynesianism does not apply to Taiwan. The reason isTaiwan had limited resources at that time, and residents had little income. There was no condition to stimulate consumption and increase investment.

Next, Yin Zhongrong formulated the Outline of the Accelerated Economic Development Plan of Taiwan, constantly breaking restrictions, releasing more resources and power to the market, and allowing enterprises and trade to develop freely.

For example, he removed restrictions on import applications, cancelled import subsidies and export taxes, encouraged exports, and developed free trade; he reformed the double exchange rate, eliminated quantitative controls, adopted a single exchange rate, stabilized the currency value, and promoted exchange rate liberalization; encouraged credit flowsManufacturing, not real estate.

Yin Zhongrong implemented the "repeating spinning and weaving" policy, taking over the textile industry from Japan and the United States, and then processing and exporting foreign exchange. At that time, none of the Taiwanese Far East, Yulon, Liuhe, and Tainan consortiums started their textile policy from Yin Zhongrong.

His basic economic thinking is "hiding wealth to the people" and encouraging private enterprises to break the economic limitations of Chiang ’s bureaucratic capital. The Taiwan authorities are only responsible for overall planning, do not control economic activities, do not direct corporate production, and strive to support a group of entrepreneurs.Developing physical industries.

Yulong founders Yan Qingling and Wu Shunwen, with the original intention of "reporting industry to the country", invested 10,000 spindles transferred from Shanghai to Hsinchu to set up Taiwan's first textile mill, creating a precedent for Taiwan's private industry.

Yan Qingling was born in an industrial family, and his father, Yan Yutang, founded a large-scale iron mill and spinning mill in Shanghai and Sunan in the early years. He is known as the "father of cotton and iron".

Yan Qingling's engineering background. After graduating from the Department of Mechanical Engineering of Tongji University in the early years, he went to Berlin University in Germany to further his studies and obtained a German engineer degree. Wu Shunwen is also a senior student Master of Arts at Columbia University. In the future, the Yan Wus and his wife led YulongFrom textiles to automobiles, to electronics, and from Taiwan to the mainland, it has created a vast world.

When Yan Qingling founded the spinning mill, Yin Zhongrong won a US aid fund totaling US $ 1.5 billion and US $ 100 million per year. He hoped to use this fund to support a group of plastic manufacturing enterprises.

However, the original owner of Yongfeng Yu Paper, He Yi, went to Europe and the United States to inspect and thought that Taiwan's PVC production lacked international competitiveness, and he declined Yin Zhongrong.

In order to reduce investment risks, Yin Zhongrong hopes to find an entrepreneur with sufficient cash flow to undertake this project. By querying the bank deposit data in Taiwan, he found that there is an unknown businessman in Chiayi who actually has a deposit of 8 million yuan. ThisMan is Wang Yongqing.

Wang Yongqing, born in Taipei County during the Japanese occupation period, has a poor family and lacks food and clothing. He is a self-made entrepreneur, but he is known as the "God of Business" in Taiwan.

At the age of 15, Wang Yongqing left his hometown to apprentice a rice shop in Chiayi County. After mastering the technology, Wang Yongqing asked his father to borrow 200 yuan from his hometown, opened a rice shop in a remote alley, and began his business legend.

Later, Wang Yongqing's store opened more and more, the front store sold rice, and the back factory milled rice. After more than ten years, Wang Yongqing accumulated a lot of capital. At the end of World War II, the Japanese army controlled Taiwan's grain supply, and Wang Yongqing was forced to close the rice store.Switched to the timber business. The timber business made him earn 50 million Taiwan dollars.

Yin Zhongrong found Wang Yongqing to talk about investing in the plastics industry. Wang Yongqing knew nothing about PVC at that time. After repeated encouragement from government officials, Wang Yongqing went to Japan to inspect in person, and soon founded the first PVC factory in Taiwan, named "Fukuo"Plastics" will be renamed "Taiwan Plastics" Taiwan Plastics for short.

In 1963, Yin Zhongrong laid the foundation for Taiwan's economy. Wang Yongqing's Formosa Plastics, Yan Qingling's Taiyuan Textile, and Xu Youzhen's Far East Textiles have gradually grown. However, at this time Yin Zhongrong was forced to be hospitalized with acute hepatitis. Chiang Kai-shekMrs. Kwong visited the hospital in person. Helplessly, her condition quickly went down and she went to the United States for treatment. She died in the United States shortly afterwards, aged 60.

Jiang Jieshi and Yin Zhongrong have a close personal relationship, and consider Yin to be the "brilliant stock minister" for revitalizing Taiwan. Yin Zhongrong's sudden death has hit his confidence in Chiang Kai-shek's "restoration." Jiang wrote in his diary: "Yin Zhongrong this morningPassing away and weakening me, a revolutionary son-in-law! "

Jiang Jieshi's speech: "I can do my best to plan and develop industrial construction, to achieve more achievements, to reform the foreign exchange trade, and to make great achievements. Based on his life, he is loyal to the country, filial piety, and good at learning.Thinking deeply, long-term self-reliance, in times of difficulties, open up a new era for Taiwan's economy, gather together and rejuvenate. "

Yin Zhongrong is the first contributor to Taiwan ’s economic development and is known as the “Father of Taiwan ’s Economy.” Taiwan ’s business community compares Yin Zhongrong with Confederate Germany ’s contemporary statesman and founder of post-war economic revitalization.

Influenced by the Confucian accession to the WTO, Yin Zhongrong showed a belief and courage to govern the world, "to make a living for the people, to open up peace for all generations." At the same time, he received western engineering education, and "politically understands power without playing tricks""Resolutely pragmatic and not adventurous in reform, it has set a precedent for" engineering Taiwan "for Taiwan's political arena.

It is worth mentioning that that year, the second daughter of Yin Zhongrong Yi Zhi and the second son Yin Zheng stayed on the mainland because they were studying in the north. Since then, there has been no news from each side until Yin Zhongrong's death.People boo.

In 1971, the United Nations "resolutely" restored China's legal seat and Taiwan was expelled.

Nixon visited China in 1972. Immediately after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Japan, Japan and Taiwan authorities severed diplomatic relations.

This series of major incidents has dealt a great blow to Taiwan ’s political and social confidence. The Taiwan authorities sent Ku Zhenfu to mediate in Japan, and Gu found friends, former foreign minister Aiichiro Fujiyama, but he failed.

A year later, the outbreak of the world oil crisis triggered a crisis of stagflation in Europe and the United States, which severely hit Taiwan's export manufacturing industry. "Diplomacy" encountered Waterloo, blocked exports, high prices, economic recession, and Taiwan's market confidence was on the verge of collapse.

In order to restore the economy, Jiang Jingguo, who has just served as the "President of the Executive Yuan," took over the scepter, made bold reforms, and implemented a series of economic revitalization plans.

At the suggestion of the Kuomintang veteran and "Minister of Finance" Yu Guohua Mr. Jiang Jieshi, also an important figure in economic revitalization, Jiang Jingguo proposed "ten constructions", namely the North-South Expressway, Taichung Port, North Hui Railway, Suao Port, Petrochemical industry, large steel plant, large shipyard, railway electrification, Taoyuan airport and nuclear power plant.

Jing Jingguo boldly enabled young and highly specialized technical bureaucrats, and at this time, two "technical men", Yunyun Sun and Li Guoding, were reused.

Sun Yunzheng and Li Guoding are the two "technical bureaucrats" of Taiwan's economic revitalization. Both are from science and engineering and have served as Taiwan's "Minister of Economy."

Sun Yunzhang, born in an ordinary family in Penglai, Shandong Province, and accepted Harbin Institute of Technology. In 1936, Sun Yunzhang suddenly received a letter saying that his paper "New Algorithms for Distribution Networks" was awarded by the Chinese Academy of Engineers "Engineering Journal"The first prize is a hundred oceans. At the same time, a resource committee power expert valued his talent and invited him to work in Nanjing.

During the Anti-Japanese War, Sun Yunzheng, who had been the power plant director, was sent by the National Government to the Tennessee Dam Administration in the United States to study for post-war construction work.

After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan, Sun Yunzheng went to Taiwan to serve as the director of the Electrical and Mechanical Department of the Taiwan Electric Power Company, responsible for repairing the Taiwan power system. Sun Yunzheng borrowed US $ 2 million from the Westinghouse Company in the United States, and established the Wulai Hydropower Station, Taiwan ’s eastern and western power distribution lines,Liwu Power Station, Hsinchu Substation.

After the outbreak of the Korean War, Sun Yunzheng seized the opportunity of US aid to invest heavily in thermal power plants and lay out the urban and rural power grids on the island. After 20 years, Sun Yunzheng has been deeply involved in the hydropower industry, from the director and chief engineer all the way to the general manager of Taipower. To Jiang JingguoDuring this period, Taiwan ’s electricity penetration rate surpassed Japan and South Korea at that time, reaching 99.7%.

Li Guoding, a talented person with three titles of economist, physicist and politician. He took the Chinese and British Gengzi compensation public study abroad exam in early years, and entered Cambridge University with the first place in mathematics.Wen Dixu graduated in the laboratory. Later, Li Guoding held important positions in Taiwan such as general manager of shipbuilding company, secretary general of American Aid Society, minister of economy, minister of finance, and presidential administration.

After Sun Li entered Jiang Jingguo's decision-making level, the situation he faced was quite severe. At that time, Sun Yunxun was the Minister of Economy and he insisted on controlling inflation through price control. However, Li Guoding's use of the Chicago School of Free Economic Proposition changed Sun'sFortunately, the high interest rate anti-inflation jointly promoted by Sun and Li worked wonders, and Taiwan's economy quickly stabilized.

Sun Yunzheng suggested to Jiang Jingguo to emulate South Korea ’s “Science and Technology Research Institute” and set up an industrial technology research institute. However, the Taiwanese Legislative Council is worried that government funding may “turn the public into private” and endless troubles. Sun Yunquan rushes forward and actively communicates with the Legislative Council.In the end, the case was reluctantly passed with just over 50% of the votes.

Affected by the oil crisis and the stagflation crisis, the United States and Japan are promoting industrial structural transformation, eliminating old production capacity, and supporting the information industry. Although Taiwan ’s economic growth rate was still not low in the 1950s and 1960s, it mostly relied on the relocation of Taiwan ’s resource dividends.With the assistance of the United States and aid from the United States, there are few industries with international competitiveness and high-tech content. With the support of Jiang Jingguo, Sun Li pushed Taiwan and South Korea to follow the footsteps of the United States and Japan, help the industry upgrade, and vigorously develop electronics and information technology.

Industrial Research Institute of Taiwan has become a reserve of Taiwan's manufacturing R & D and talents in the future. It has accumulated nearly 30,000 patents for more than 40 years, created and cultivated 273 companies, including the well-known TSMC. Chairman Cao XingchengMing Cai, Chairman of MediaTek, was an engineer or R & D staff member of ITRI.

In February 1974, Sun Yunyi invited a group of politicians and businessmen to have breakfast, including Executive Dean Fei Yan, Director of the General Administration of Telecommunications Fang Xianqi, Minister of Transport Gao Yushu, Dean of the Industrial Research Institute Wang Zhaozhen, Director of the Institute of Telecommunications Kang Baohuang, and American RadioPan Wenyuan, director of the company's research office.

After breakfast, they discussed a decision to focus on the development of the integrated circuit manufacturing industry. The specific approach was to set up the Industrial Research Institute's Technical Advisory Committee to be responsible for introducing integrated circuit research and development, manufacturing, packaging and testing technologies from the United States.

In July of the same year, Sun Yundi and Li Guoding convened overseas Chinese to set up a technical advisory committee to evaluate technology projects in the United States, and widely sought the opinions of entrepreneurs, engineers and scientists.

However, this move caused criticism, Taiwan media suspected that there was interest transmission, and Sun and Li were under great pressure. To this end, Jiang Jingguo specifically asked Li Guoding: "What is a semiconductor?"

Lee's answer is surprising: "I don't know."

Jing Jingguo did not like Li Guoding, but Li Guoding impressed Jiang Jingguo with the phrase "government administration should benefit the people". The two often disagree, but Jiang Jingguo still fully authorizes Li to display his talents.

This time, Jiang Jinguo hoped that Li Guoding first understood the semiconductor to reduce the objection. However, Li Guoding insisted that it was necessary to set up a technical advisory committee because he did not understand. Jiang finally agreed to Li Guoding's idea.

In 1977, Sun Yunzhen coordinated Taiwan's "Ministry of Defense" and requisitioned a piece of land in Hsinchu. Three years later, a Hsinchu Industrial Park was built on this land.

Different from South Korea ’s support of the chaebol power, Taiwan adopts a SME model to encourage entrepreneurship and nurture the market. Li Guoding and the ITRI have tried every means to invite foreign students, engineers, and scientists from the United States to return to Hsinchu to start a business.

At this time, an outstanding technical talent entered Li Guoding's field of vision. This is Zhang Zhongmou.

Zhang Zhongmou was born in Ningbo, Zhejiang. In order to avoid war, Zhang Zhongmou moved with his family and moved to Nanjing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Chongqing. Most of his childhood time spent in Hong Kong.

In 1949, before leaving the mainland, Zhang Zhongmou traveled with a group of friends to the Huangpu River. He recalled the scene that night :

"Under the starry sky, the distant Shanghai is as drunk as a dream, I do n’t know if we are drunk or Shanghai is drunk. There was a person in the same tour who ran to the bow of the boat and shouted: 'Huangpu River, How long can we stay here? '"

After that, Zhang Zhongmou went to Harvard University in the United States. The next year, he transferred to MIT to study mechanical engineering.

After graduating from the master's degree, Zhang Zhongmou, 24, entered the semiconductor industry at the same time as Intel founder Gordon Moore. He also entered Texas Instruments with the inventor of integrated circuits, Jack Kilby. This world-renowned semiconductor company was alsoThe name is unknown.

Zhang Zhongmou is the first Chinese employee of Texas Instruments. He is a fisherman in Texas, and he has been a senior vice president all the way, the company's third person.

However, Zhang Zhongmou and President Xia Bai, who have a candid character, have divergent views on the company's strategic direction. Zhang Zhongmou hopes that the company will invest more in the emerging semiconductor industry, but the president is more willing to seize the consumer electronics market., The contradictions are highlighted.

In 1982, Li Guoding went to the United States to invite Zhang Zhongmou to work in Taiwan. However, at the time, Zhang Zhongmou still had a large amount of stock options that had not expired. If he left immediately, the losses would be too great, and the Taiwan government ’s treatment conditions were not enough to make upSo Zhang Zhongmou declined Li Guoding.

Three years later, Zhang Zhongmou left Texas Instruments. At this time, Xu Xianxiu, chairman of the Taiwan Institute of Industry and Technology, went to the United States many times to invite Zhang Huitai to serve as president of the Institute.

At the beginning, Zhang Zhongmou thought that going to Taiwan was just taking over the post of dean. I did not expect that just two weeks after he became the dean, Li Guoding asked him to discuss the "VLSI plan." Li Guoding hoped to form a joint ventureA large integrated circuit manufacturing company and chaired by Zhang Zhongmou.

Zhang Zhongmou has been fascinated by the semiconductor industry, and now Li Guoding's plan will undoubtedly excite him. However, at that time, the global semiconductor industry was just beginning, Intel and other companies organized the entire industrial chain, and Taiwan ’s electronics industry had a very poor foundation. I did n’t know how to cut in.

Zhang Zhongmou ’s thinking is “do n’t make his own products, only manufacture products for semiconductor design companies.” So, Zhang cooperated with Li, Zhang was in charge of technology and business, and Li took care of everything else.

Li Guoding has invested in the Dutch Philips company, and the Taiwan government has also contributed some funds. However, the funds are still not enough. Li Guoding used personal relationships to find Wang Yongqing, Tainan Gang boss Wu Xiuqi, Miao Fengqiang son of Miao Yuxiu from ShandongInvested.

Miao Fengqiang recalled: "At the time he" forced "me to invest in TSMC". Li Guoding said to Miao: "In the past, I have supported you so much, and now there is something in the country, why can you not support it?"

After the company was established, the shareholder Philips tried to take control and frequently intervened in Zhang Zhongmou's specific affairs. Li Guoding personally called the chairman of Philips to fight for Zhang Zhongmou's business autonomy.

This company co-founded and co-founded by Li Zhang is TSMC, which will grow into a global semiconductor manufacturing leader in the future.

Later, Zhang Zhongmou said publicly: "Without Li Guoding, there will be no TSMC."

Li Guoding and Zhang Zhongmou came along with Qi Shanlin, engineers, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs.

In April 1976, the Taiwan Industrial Research Institute selected 19 young people to study technology at the American Radio Corporation RCA.

The first batch of Taiwan RCA members first went to New Jersey's RCA R & D center for training, and then divided into three teams, divided into New Jersey's IC design group, Ohio's CMOS process group, and Florida's memory-related process group.For about one year of training.

The 19 young people live up to expectations, bringing American integrated circuit technology back to Taiwan and building Taiwan into a world electronics manufacturing center.

They are Chen Biwan, general manager of Taiwan Mask, Liu Yingda, former chairman of UMC, Cao Xingcheng, honorary chairman of UMC, Cai Mingjie, chairman of MediaTek, Huang Xianxiong, chairman of Shenghua, and Zeng Fancheng, vice chairman of TSMC.

Zeng Fancheng, currently the vice chairman of TSMC, was the first RCA member. He once recalled: "At the time, we were very young, with great enthusiasm, and wanted to make Taiwan's integrated circuit technology."

This is the era of "engineers ruling Taiwan."

After Yin Zhongrong, Sun Yunzheng and Li Guoding, two politicians with science and engineering backgrounds, successively served as "Ministers of Economy", worked hard to improve science and technology, promote Taiwan's industrial transformation and upgrade, and helped Taiwan to become the "Asian Little Dragon."

Sun Yunzheng was hailed as the "Father of ITRI", Li Guoding was hailed as "The Godfather of Taiwan's Science and Technology", and both were the founders of Taiwan's technology industry and "the promoters of Taiwan's economy."

In the 1980s and 1990s, Taiwan ’s annual GDP growth rate was basically above 8%. In 1988, Taiwan ’s per capita GDP had exceeded the US $ 1,000 mark, while the mainland ’s per capita GDP was only US $ 283.

In 1984, Sun Yunxun got up early and suffered a sudden cerebral hemorrhage when shaving his beard. He was critically ill. After losing some language and ability to move, Sun Yunxuan faded out of Taiwan's political arena. Later, the third generation of the Chiang family recalled that Sun Yunxuan would be Jiang JingguoThe only person to succeed.

Sun Yundi fell when Taiwan's economy took off, and fate made a joke with Taiwan.

In the 1970s, politicians with engineering backgrounds set up the stage, and entrepreneurs successively appeared on the stage and emerged in the wave of technology. After the 1980s, based on the traditional five major families, Wang Yongqing, Cai Wanlin, and Zhang Zhongmou began to appear in Taiwan., Guo Taiming, Lin Baili, Chen Shiqing and other upstarts.

Wang Yongqing is called the "God of Business" in Taiwan because of his successful business career, which outlines the trajectory of Taiwan's industrial transformation. Wang Yongqing is thin and tall, calling himself "thin goose" and advocates being as forgiving as thin gooseHungry, waiting for the opportunity with a resolute attitude.

In 1978, Wang Yongqing's Formosa Plastics revenue reached US $ 1 billion. Two years later, Wang Yongqing acquired a large chemical plant in Texas, USA. Under his integration, Formosa Plastics became the world's largest PVC plant.

In 1983, Wang Yongqing established the South Asia Circuit Board Project Team to cross the border into the electronics industry for the first time. At this time, Formosa Plastics has straddled many industries such as plastics, chemical fibers, clothing, wood, and electronics, and is second to none among private enterprises. AroundMore than 1,500 downstream factories that survive Formosa Plastics.

At this time, Zhang Zhongmou, the first global wafer foundry model, is frantically taking processing orders from Europe, America and Japan in Hsinchu Industrial Park.

After Reagan's reform, the rapid economic recovery of the United States promoted the global industrial transfer and the deep development of vertical industries. Zhang Zhongmou has already laid the chessboard to take over this huge cake. TSMC has quickly become the leader in Taiwan's semiconductor industry, and at the same time has led a large number of electronic processing companies.Rise. Zhang Zhongmou is therefore known as Taiwan's "semiconductor godfather."

Different from Zhang Zhongmou of “Genzhen Miao Hong”, Guo Taiming's origin is similar to Wang Yongqing, his family is poor, and he completed his studies at a maritime college by working and studying. However, Guo Taiming has a keen sense of business and jumped back in 1973.Entered the electronics industry, joined hands with friends to create Hon Hai Plastics, and made channel selection buttons for the black and white TVs that were just emerging.

This small company was on the verge of failure several times, and it only improved after several toss. In 1982, Guo Taiming renamed the company Hon Hai Precision, and entered the US market three years later 1985, creating "Foxconn" Foxconn. However, it is not the United States, but the mainland of China that truly makes Foxconn's manufacturing empire.

In 1992, the two sides of the Taiwan Straits focused on national justice and verbally expressed the one-China principle. "As long as the one-China principle is adhered to, the political meaning of one China cannot be discussed." This is the "1992 consensus."

In April 1993, Gu Zhenfu and Wang Daohan held talks in Singapore, and the history is called "Gu Wang talks."

Gu's family is the first of the five traditional families in Taiwan. Gu Zhenfu has high prestige in Taiwan's political and business circles and has long represented the authorities in "economic diplomacy." This time, Gu Zhenfu promoted "civilian, economic, and transactional" activities across the Taiwan Strait.It touched Taiwan's "legacy" and the upstart business sense.

Since then, the cross-strait economic and trade situation has widened, and Taiwanese capital has swarmed into the mainland.

The couple Yan Qingling and Wu Shunwen evacuated the mainland with 10,000 spindles. In 1995, Wu Shunwen Yan Qingling has passed away led Yulong Automobile and established the Southeast Automobile with Fujian Automobile Industry Group.

In 1994, Guo Taiming, who had already eaten the first "crab", came to Longhua, Shenzhen, and rented a large piece of wasteland covered with weeds. Here, Guo Taiming established the world's electronic foundry empire that will accommodate more than 400,000 workers in the future ——Foxconn. Taiwan's established electronics companies such as TSMC, Acer, Asus, Delta Electronics are close behind. Today, four of the top ten Chinese exporters are Taiwan's electronics companies.

Wang Yongqing once said, "If the mainland realizes the three links, I will leave the company in Taiwan, which is beneficial to industrial upgrading." But today, Formosa Plastics Group has dozens of factories in the mainland, in Ningbo, Nantong, HuizhouKunshan has formed a chemical manufacturing cluster. Among them, Kunshan has many Taiwanese enterprises and is known as "Little Taipei."

HTC International HTC, founded by Wang Yongqing's daughter Wang Xuehong, entered the Chinese mainland market in 2010, and HTC smartphones were very popular.

In addition to the electronics industry, Cai Yanming's Want Want Food, Wei Yingzhou's "Master", "High Definition's" Unification ", and Yuyuan, Fengtai, Ruhong and other footwear and apparel companies have also entered the Chinese mainland.

According to the statistics of the competent economic department of Taiwan, from 1991 to 2019, the total amount of Taiwanese investment in the mainland was close to 200 billion US dollars, and there were nearly 100,000 Taiwan-funded enterprises in the mainland.

Throughout the 70 years of Taiwan, Taiwan ’s economy can make such achievements without a group of politicians who are mindful of national justice and inspiring technical bureaucrats. The beautiful situation they have created is now accompanied by the Kuomintang veterans and new political forces.Seizure of power is even more confusing.

Today, facing the Kuomintang that has suffered, and the extremely aggressive DPP, the older generation of Taiwanese missed Chiang Ching-kuo very much. They thought that if Mr. Jiang is still alive, cross-strait relations will not lead to a situation where people are on the way..

Taiwan ’s historical lessons warn politicians: do n’t take a chance, do n’t greedy the achievements of the world, the people are the most valuable, the society is the second, the monarch is the light, the blessing of the people, and the good fortune of the country.

Mencius said: "The emperor is not benevolent and does not protect the four seas; the princes are not benevolent and does not protect the community. The doctor Qing is not benevolent and does not protect the ancestral temple.


References :

[1] Biography of Jiang Jingguo, Tao Han, Chinese Press;

[2] Taiwan Economic Godfather Yin Zhongrong, Chen Shengqiao, Sohu.com;

[3] An Introduction to Taiwan's Economic History, Zhou Xianwen, Straits Academic Press;

[4] Taiwan Industrial History, Gao Shuyuan, Wunan Book Publishing Company;

[5] Full biography of Wang Yongqing, Ding Zhike, China Social Science Press;

[6] Zhang Zhongmou's autobiography, Zhang Zhongmou, Sanlian Bookstore;

[7] Gu Zhenfu's life record, Huang Tiancai, Lianjing Publishing Company;

[8] Taiwan's rapid economic growth experience, Li Guoding, Zhengzhong Bookstore.

Wen | Chimoto

Zhibensha | A hardcore learning club that listens to hard lessons, reads hard books, and reads hard texts. Wechat search "Zhibensha ID: zhibenshe0-1" to learn more in-depth content.

special statement

This article is uploaded and published by the media, authors, etc. in Baidu Know Daily. It only represents the author ’s point of view, and does not mean that Baidu knows the opinion or position of the daily newspaper. It is known that the daily newspaper only provides an information publishing platform. For cooperation and contributions, please contact zdribao@baidu.com.

+1 Like it Like

Follow the author

Zhibensha
A hardcore learning club listening to hard lessons, reading hard books, and reading hard texts

I know the daily hot articles

www.knowledge-daily.com e-mail: k@knowledge-daily.com