How big is the territory of the Ming Dynasty? What is the truth about 9.97 million square kilometers of territory?

2020-01-17 | Read History Book at Night original |

How big is the Ming Dynasty territory? This topic has always attracted the attention of many Ming Dynasty history enthusiasts. The description of Ming Dynasty's territory at that time in the "History of Ming Dynasty · Chengzu Benji" is "the vastness of the sky, far from the Han and Tang dynasties."Does this statement conform to objective facts?

To answer this question, you can first take a look at the Ming Dynasty map above. From the picture, we can see that the Ming Dynasty's territory encompasses the Waixing'an Mountains in the northeast, and the southwest reaches the south-central peninsula of Southeast Asia today.The ridge today's Pamirs is close to the sea to the east. According to the algorithms of future generations, the area of ​​the Ming Dynasty reached 9.97 million square kilometers in Yongle, which is wider than our current Chinese territory. However, reading history books at nightIt is important to point out here that the information in the map above is not true.

First of all, the territory declared by the ancient Chinese dynasty is not the same as territorial sovereignty as we understand it today. The territory declared by the ancient dynasty actually includes two parts, one is the Central Plains homeland, and the other is the area controlled by the imprisonment.The concept is relatively easy to understand, that is, the area where the Hans settled for a long time and was highly sinicized was placed in the Ming Dynasty during the Ming Dynasty, which is known as the "Thirteen Provinces of the Han Dynasty." And what is the matter of the custody control area? In fact, the so-called custodyIt is the ancient Central Plains dynasty's policy of suppressing foreigners. The Central Plains dynasty enlisted the official leaders, and the foreign leaders accepted the title and belonged to the Central Plains dynasty. In return, the Central Plains dynasty granted the foreign leader the trade privileges, which is roughly equivalent toYou give me a tribute of 100 yuan for the goods, and I give you double the goods as a reward. The Central Plains dynasty got face, the people got the lilies, and both sides took what they needed. The so-called 9.97 million square kilometers of the Ming Dynasty is actually a large part of this.In this area of ​​imprisonment control, the imperial court could not conscript or tax in these places.

However, there is also a large number of imprisonment control. For example, there are two main areas of imprisonment control declared by the Ming Dynasty. One is Tibet today and its surrounding areas, and the other is today's Northeast and Waixinganling, Taku.Page islands and other regions. The Ming Dynasty set up the Uzang Tibetan Division and the Dogandu Division in the former, and the Nuergandu Division in the latter. Many people take this as the view that the Ming Dynasty implemented effective rule in these two regions.misunderstanding.

In the Ming Dynasty, Tibet had been divided into many monastic factions, and none of them occupied a dominant position. Emperor Hongwu Zhu Yuanzhang once sent messengers to Tibet, granted some Tibetan leaders Ming official positions, and announced the establishment of the Uth Tibetan Division and Dogandu Division.However, these Tibetan leaders did not have the right to rule in Tibet at the time, and even the mainstream forces were not counted. The Uth Tibetan Division and the Dogandu Division only existed in name. The Ming Dynasty neither stationed troops in these places, nor did they go toOfficials were dispatched in these places. Emperor Hongwu planned several administrative regions on the map to declare that this is the territory of Daming, but the mainstream forces in Tibet did not know about it and did not recognize it. What kind of territory is this?

Compared with Tibet, the control of the imprisonment in the Northeast region in the Ming Dynasty will be much more real. In the 9th year of Yongle 1411, Ming Chengzu Zhu Xi sent a famous eunuch of Haixi Jurchen to expedite the expedition to recruit savages in Heilongjiang.Jurchen. The team that also lost Kazakhstan arrived in the lower reaches of Heilongjiang and was warmly welcomed by the savage maiden. The two sides exchanged gifts. After some exchanges, the leader of the savage Jurchen agreed to the slavery of the Ming Dynasty in the lower reaches of Heilongjiang Nikolai, Russia today.Yevsk The establishment of the Metropolitan Command Division, which is the origin of the establishment of the Department of Nuergandu.

After the establishment of the Nuergandu Division, the Ming Dynasty dispatched officials and garrisons from the mainland here. Although the Jurchen leaders of the Northeast region are still in charge of the affairs of the Jurchen leaders, from the perspective of detention control, the slavesThe establishment of Dusi can indeed mark the region's nominal inclusion in the territory of the Ming Dynasty, which is fundamentally different from the unilateral declaration of Tibet. However, it is worth mentioning that the northern part of Nuerkandusi was at the timeThey are all uninhabited areas that are unsuitable for human habitation. Many people in later generations will also place these places on the Daming map.

To sum up, the 9.97 million square kilometers of territory calculated by later generations are actually a bit exaggerated. The territory that really belongs to the Ming Dynasty is far from being so vast. The saying "the sky is wide, the distance is far from Han and Tang"There is still a certain gap with objective facts.

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