What are the implied meanings of the "year-old picture" that made the ancient Spring Festival full of art?

2020-01-24 | Historical University Hall original |

"Spring Festival" is the most lively and most valued traditional festival of the Chinese people. People will do New Year's goods, sweep the dust, visit relatives, pray for disaster relief, celebrate entertainment, etc. before and after the Lunar New Year. And in the Qing Dynasty, the customs of the Spring FestivalMore attention is paid to the people of Li Min, up to the relatives of the imperial family, no exception. The most representative way for the Qing Dynasty emperor to spend the Spring Festival in the Forbidden City is to purchase the "new year", which usually refers to the lunar calendar.New Year is used to give gifts to relatives and friends. Every new year in the Forbidden City carries the power of strong natural beliefs, making people awe and joy.

So, what are the special New Year's articles in the Forbidden City? In the fourth episode of the popular New Year's Eve show "New Year's Eve in the Forbidden City", the audience was introduced to the "Forbidden City" the Qing Dynasty emperor purchased during the Spring Festival., These profound New Year's articles fill the eyes of the audience, and the most impressive "New Year's articles" in the program is the "year-old picture" with a strong artistic flavor.


pictured above

I. The origin of the "year-old picture"

The term "year-old dynasty" was first taken from the record of "the year-old dynasty gathers the students and talks about the end of the day" in the Book of Later Han Dynasty · Zhou Pan Biography ", beginning at the age of one year; it is used to refer to the first day of the first month of the lunar calendar."It is a picture drawn in celebration of the" Sui Dynasty "Note: the first day of the first lunar month, and the content in the painting is usually still life with New Year's poems.

From the perspective of time, the "Shao Chaotu" first appeared in the Tang Dynasty. At that time, only some gentry and literati placed elegant items such as gold stones, paintings, antiques, and antiques on the case table next to the window.The first picture of Sui Dynasty in the real sense in history should be the "Sui Dynasty Picture" by Zhao Chang of the Northern Song Dynasty, and the Sui Dynasty Picture began to flourish in the imperial palace of the Huizong period of the Northern Song Dynasty.

As we all know, Song Huizong Zhao Yun was a versatile literary emperor. Song History evaluated him as "everything can be, but not the only one." He played art until he lost his country. He not only has a high level of calligraphy He created the famous "Skinny Gold Body", and he is quite good at painting and painting. He is also very good at painting flowers and birds. However, Song Huizong's paintings such as "Hibiscus Caricatus" are mainlyIt is through sketching that flowers and birds not seen in winter are used to respond to the scene and set off the atmosphere of the New Year.


Picture of "Hibiscus Caragana" above Created by Zhao Hui of Song Huizong in the Northern Song Dynasty

Secondary meaning imprinted in "The Picture of Sui Dynasty"

In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Sui Chaotu had been shaped and popularized in the real sense of the Ming and Qing palaces-the Forbidden City the Forbidden City. In many cases, the emperor himself even painted a few strokes.

In the seventeenth year of Ming Chenghua 1481, the famous Oedipus Emperor fascinated by his own 17-year-old Wangui concubine Ming Xianzong Zhu Jianshen once drew a picture of the year-old dynasty— "The Year-old Zhaohaotu", Because Zhu Jianshen is good at figure painting. Therefore, most of his year-old figures depict the court's New Year celebrations or characters related to the New Year. In the" Golden Sign of the Year ", Zhong Yan, one of the door gods in folklore alsoThere are gods, Yu Lei, Qin Qiong, Yu Chijingde, etc. In the painting, Zhong Yan is staring at the bat flying towards him, implying "blessing bat is in front of him" or "blessing bat is coming";Holding a Ruyi, the little ghost next to him holds a pot of persimmon and cypress branches, which means "a hundred cypress things persimmon Ruyi".


Pictured above, "A Good Omen of the Sui Dynasty", created by Zhu Jianshen of the Ming Dynasty during the Ming Dynasty

When it comes to the emperor who paid the most attention to the Sui Dynasty paintings, it was the Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, and the Palace Museum currently has dozens of Qianlong paintings.

It is said that the reason why the Emperor Qianlong liked to draw Sui Chaotu is related to his other hobby, Xia Jiangnan. During the eight years of Qianlong Emperor Qianlong 1743, when Qianlong Emperor saw Jiangnan literati when he went down the river, he posted the "Shui Chaoqing Confession"Picture ”, which reminds Dong Gong Northern Song painter, and Zhao Chang ’s ancestor of the year-old ancestor once collected in the palace.With vigorous promotion, and Qianlong himself has always been a literati, he loves to write poems and paintings, leaving a lot of poetry and paintings of course, high and low level of opinion, so when he went back, he turned into a loyal fan of the Sui Chaotu, not only almostEvery Spring Festival, I draw the "Story of the Sui Dynasty" myself. I must also write poems in the pictures, and give these poems a unique name-"Spring Posts."

In the twenty-ninth year of Qianlong 1764, a picture of Kaishao was drawn, which depicts pine bamboo plums, ice cracked vases, narcissus, ganoderma, water radish, etc.

Songzhumei is called "Three Friends of the Old Cold", which means ideal character and spiritual realm;

Ice Cracked Vase means "year by year";

Daffodils and Ganoderma means "Longevity auspicious";

Water carrots echo the custom of "bite spring", which means a bumper harvest of fruits and vegetables, and the word "kaishao" on the title of the pond is the name of this picture, which means to open a beautiful year.


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Pictured above is the "year-old picture" "Kaishao" by Emperor Qianlong

The thirty-two years of Qianlong 1767 painted another "Angchun", which has a spring-like allegorical meaning. Lily, persimmon, and Ruyi in the painting allude to "Pepsi Ruyi"; the ice-cracked round bottle is still a moral"Safe every year." Give auspicious meaning to nature.


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Pictured above is the "year-old dynasty" "Ang Chun" by Qianlong Emperor

It can be seen that the Sui Chaotu developed into the Ming and Qing dynasties, and its content has been extended to the New Year's custom. In addition to the Sui Chaotu drawn by the emperor, the Sui Chaotu is also inseparable from the annual custom. For example:

The child sweeping the yard depicted in Li Shida's "Shao Chaotu" of the Ming Dynasty embodies the custom of "cleaning the dust" "Dust" and "Chen" are homophonic, and the Chinese New Year sweeping dust has the meaning of "Chen Chen Buxin";

Qing Dynasty Yao Wenhan's "Celebration of the Yearly Chaos" and Ding Guanpeng's "Map of the Taiping Spring City" both depict the custom of celebrating the reunion of the family during the New Year. There are also gongs and drums, drums, and clappers.精彩, firecrackers and other exciting activities.


Pictured above: "A Celebration of the Year-old Dynasty", a Chinese painting created by Qing Dynasty painter Yao Wenhan

3. What does "year-old confession" mean

In addition to depicting the customary activities of the ancient people for the Spring Festival, there are also many flowers and utensils with auspicious meaning as the theme. These works of Sui Zhaotu are called "Sui Chaoqing"For photo ".

The so-called "clear confession" refers to the interior decoration of elegant ya, mainly including various bonsai, flower arrangement, seasonal fruits, exotic stones, handicrafts, antiques, fine stationery, etc., and the confession placed during the New Year wasIt is called "the Qing Dynasty confession". Many ancient dynasties have painted "qing confession" during the Chinese New Year. The implication is also auspicious and auspicious.

Plum blossoms in "New Hi" by the famous painter Qi Baishi in modern times have the meaning of primula, and the plum blossoms in the painting are five petals, which means "five blessings";

The pine branches inserted in the bottle in the painting of the year-old dynasty by the painter and painter Jin Nong in the Qing Dynasty means "peaceful longevity", and if the bottle is plum blossom, it means "peaceful happiness";

If it is a peony, it means "safe and rich", and a bottle of litchi means "peace and good luck", etc.

There are as many as seven kinds of clear flowers and fruits as described in the huge picture of Sui Qingqing Contribution by the painting masters from the end of the Qing Dynasty to the beginning of the Republic of China. They are all seasonal flowers and fruits that bloom in the Spring Festival.Calamus, lychee and shakya are full of festive and auspicious atmosphere.

Observing carefully the "year-old picture" and studying the allegorical meanings of the New Year in paintings, you can understand the Spring Festival customs and aesthetic tastes in different historical periods.Cultural background and spiritual connotation. In ancient China, with agriculture as its root, the year-old figure always entrusts people with good wishes and longing for a happy new year in life, good grain, and plenty of food and clothing.


pictured above, part of the silk painting by Zhao Chang, Northern Song Dynasty

Fourth, pay attention to the traditional ritual sense of the Spring Festival

The ancient painting "Shou Chaotu" sent a beautiful allegory to the New Year, and it is also a ritual expression of the ancient Chinese Spring Festival. Not only the picture, but also many objects have been sent to Ruixiang.

For example, in the fourth episode of "New Year in the Forbidden City", there are enamel images bearing Guanyin pure bottles, meaning "Taiping bottle is like xiang"; fine craftsmanship, luxurious materials, precious stones, gold and silver bonsai; originating from itching,The agate carved Ganoderma lucidum Ruyi, which means "everything is wishful"; it has been circulating since the Tang Dynasty, and symbolizes the peaceful Yanhai Qingxiang burner, etc.

The "New Year's Objects" purchased by the Qing Dynasty emperors in the Forbidden City during the Spring Festival are the same as "The Yearly Chaotu", which can express people's expectations and aspirations for the Spring Festival. From the side, it also shows that the ancients had a full ceremony for the Spring Festival.sense.

In modern times, due to the acceleration of the pace of social life, the rapid development of market economy development, and the invasion of foreign cultures, in addition to the more ingrained customs such as sticking spring couplets and setting off firecrackers, many Spring Festival traditional customsAre no longer understood by everyone.

We have reason to believe that by using a similar method to the "Forbidden City" to restore the past Spring Festival tradition, using a more modern and younger expression, and regaining the sense of New Year's ritual, we will certainly be able to give our traditional culture a newMeaning, creating a new style of Chinese New Year.

Text: Boling Qinghe

References :

[1] Fan Ye's "Han Han Book? Biography of Zhou Pan"

[2] Song Qi, Ouyang Xiu, etc. "New Tang Book"

[3] Tutuo, Arutu, etc. "History of Song"

[4] Zhang Geng's "Continuation Record of the Painting Collection of the Chinese Dynasty"

[5] Luo Baoping and Zhang Huiqi, Beijing Local Records, 2006

[6] Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts, Journal of Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts, 2017

The text was created by the team of the historical university, and the pictures are from the copyright of the original author

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