Everything in the universe is different, what is the most basic substance?
Some people asked: What are the basic substances that make up the universe?
This question is a little vague, we can say it in several levels.
Modern science believes that less than 5% of visible matter in the universe and more than 95% of invisible matter.
What is visible matter? It is our earth, people on the earth, pigs, cats, dogs, rivers, lakes, mountains, wilderness, plus sun, moon, stars, galaxy nebula, etc., wherever you can seeAll belong to the visible universe. All these, including the cosmic dust, add up to only 4.9% of the total mass of the universe.
The invisible universe is composed of dark matter and dark energy, accounting for 95.1% of the total universe. Among them, dark energy occupies 68.3% and dark matter occupies 26.8%. That is to say, visible matter is only less than one-fifth of dark matter.One-twentieth of the total number of things missing.
What is dark matter and dark energy? How can it be said that they exist since they are invisible?
This is the difference between science and the people who eat melons. The people who eat melons think that seeing is believing, and science believes that experimental observation can prove it. The so-called observation is not only observation, but also "measurement".Anomalies in the universe.
According to the law of universal gravitation, the mass of a galaxy does not have the gravitation to maintain this state at all. The material forming this gravitation is several times larger than the visible matter, so people call this material "dark matter." The research found thatThis dark matter is the main force that connects the universe.
Further research found that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Among them, a dominant force is a certain kind of force, which is called dark energy. This kind of dark energy continuously consumes dark matter, and the mass of the universe is continuously reduced, so that the expansion is accelerated..Dark energy is the main force driving the movement of the universe.
Neither dark matter nor dark energy will absorb, reflect or radiate light, and will not have any effect on electromagnetic waves. And all modern human observations are through electromagnetic waves, including visible light and invisible light, so dark matter cannot be directly observed using modern technology.Dark energy. But through indirect calculations, these substances are there to dominate and affect the operation of the universe.
For decades, scientists have spent huge amounts of human material and financial resources in an attempt to make these hidden gadgets show their true colors, but so far they have had little effect, and the study of dark matter and dark energy can only be in a state of conjecture. But this energy andThe existence of matter is already clear.
In this sense, is dark matter dark energy the basic substance of the universe? If not, how can the fate and fate of the universe be determined by the contest between dark matter and dark energy?
Dark matter and dark energy contest, it is hard to tell who will die in the end.
But whoever is the winner in the end will determine the different destinations of the universe.
If the dark energy has always been dominant, the universe will expand forever, and there are two kinds of destinations. One is the big tear, and the visible matter in the universe can not withstand the expansion rate faster and faster, up to the celestial body, down to the atom, Protons, neutrons, electrons and other particles have been torn, and the existing visible matter will no longer exist. Some scientists have calculated that this tearing time is only more than 26 billion years.
There is another way to die is to expand forever. All celestial bodies are farther and farther away from each other, the visible matter of the universe is becoming more and more loose, and eventually they are invisible to each other. The energy of the universe such as stars is completely consumed, the space density is zero, and the temperatureAt absolute zero, the universe dies in hot or cold silence.
If the power of dark matter finally defeats, the universe will reach a critical point when it expands to a certain time, and then it will shrink. It will shrink faster and faster under the action of gravity, and eventually lead to the collapse of time and space. It is due to the singularity.Where does the universe come from, and where does it go back. The universe came from a singularity explosion and returned to a singularity, where time and space begin and end there.
Maybe at a distant moment, the universe will appear in an explosion again, but that is already another universe, and it has nothing to do with us. We humans and all civilizations of this universe have not yet ended in this universe., It’s finished long ago, and there is no trace of it.
Now let's talk about the most visible 4.9% universe.
Among the visible substances in the universe, the most is hydrogen, which accounts for about 75% of the total visible matter; the second is helium, which accounts for about 24% of the total visible matter; the remaining about 1% is the otherThese elements include 0.085% oxygen, 0.036% carbon, 0.012% neon, 0.011% nitrogen, 0.004% magnesium, 0.004% silicon, 0.003% iron, 0.002% sulfur, etc.
We have now found that 118 elements exist in the universe, and hydrogen and helium are the lightest elements. In the study of the abundance of cosmic celestial elements, elements other than hydrogen and helium are generally called heavy elements. 118 species exist in the universeElements exist on the earth, 92 of which are found in nature, and 26 are artificially manufactured. Even if they are artificially manufactured, they also exist in nature, otherwise they cannot be manufactured, but these elements are very small orThe half-life lifetime is too short to exist in nature.
The elements of the sun are similar to the abundance of the universe, except that there are more heavy elements. Because the sun is not born in the primitive nebula of the universe, but a secondary nebula that was born in the sky after a big supernova explosion, which already containsHeavy elements inspired by nuclear fusion and supernova explosions.
The mass of the earth is only 130,000 of the sun, and it is one of the gathering planets of heavy elements in the solar system. The abundance of elements is of course completely different from the universe.
On the earth, the abundance of various elements is: oxygen 48.06%, silicon 26.30%, aluminum 7.73%, iron 4.75%, calcium 3.45%, sodium 2.74%, potassium 2.47%, magnesium 2.00%, hydrogen 0.76%,Others 0.76%.
The living bodies on the earth, including the human body, are also composed of these elements. There are more than 60 kinds of conventional elements in the human body, including uncommon elements, and almost all known element types are included. So, the world we know, Are composed of various elements, including human beings.
So, if we determine the abundance of visible elements in the universe, are hydrogen and helium the most basic substances in the universe?
Now let's understand the visible matter forms in the universe.
If classified according to the form of the existence of matter, the matter on our earth mainly includes solid, liquid and gas. But in the universe, people have found that there are 8 kinds of matter, in addition to the common three states of our earth, there are also plasmaStates, Bose-Einstein condensate, fermion condensate, electronic degeneracy, neutron degeneracy, etc.
I have elaborated on these material forms in past questions and answers and articles. Interested parties can go to check them, so I won’t go into details here.
The most common physical forms on earth are solid, liquid and gaseous.
The various tools, clothing, food, housing, and transportation we use are mostly solid. Rivers, lakes, and seas are the foundation of biological life. They are water, which is liquid. The air we breathe cannot be seen, but it is ubiquitous and belongs to the gaseous state.
In the visible universe, the most common and most common form of matter is plasma.
The so-called plasma is a "plasma" that is deprived of some electrons and mixed with a free electron group leaving the atom. The entire "plasma" is still neutral, and its motion is controlled by electromagnetic forces. SimpleThat is to say, the stars in the universe are all balls made of plasma. These plasma balls occupy more than 90% of the visible matter in the universe and continuously radiate energy into space.
In this sense, the plasma is the most embroiled form in the universe and the basic substance.
Conclusion: The so-called basic material concept of the universe is relatively vague, and we can get different answers according to different classifications.
According to the total amount of visible and invisible matter in the universe, invisible matter is the basic substance of the universe, of which the most is dark energy, accounting for 68.3% of the total universe;
According to the abundance of elements in visible matter, hydrogen is the most element in the universe, so it is the most basic matter in the universe, accounting for 75% of visible matter;
According to the different forms of matter, plasma is the most material form in the universe, so it is the basic material form of the universe, accounting for more than 90% of the material form.
I don’t know if this friend is satisfied with this division? What do you think is the basic substance of the universe? Let’s express our opinions.
Thanks for reading and welcome to discuss.
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