# Someone’s brains want to send a submarine to Jupiter’s liquid hydrogen ocean adventure, what do you think?

2020-06-15 | Space-time communication original |

Someone suggested: open a brain hole ~ can a nuclear submarine be sent into Jupiter's ocean of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium to sail?

This brain hole is big, but it is a bit crippled.

This is Hu Huo who doesn't know the common sense of heaven and earth. Since this friend knows that Jupiter has a liquid hydrogen ocean, don't you know how the liquid hydrogen on it came from? So far I have not seen a liquid helium ocean on Jupiter.That is to say, because the conditions for the formation of liquid helium are more severe, and the phase transition temperature at one atmospheric pressure is 4.215K, Jupiter’s high temperature and pressure cannot form liquid helium, only liquid hydrogen and metal hydrogen.

On the earth, liquid hydrogen is a liquid obtained by reducing the temperature of hydrogen. To what extent does this temperature drop? It is under an atmospheric pressure and drops below 20.37K. Expressed in degrees Celsius is -252.78°C. This is the boiling point of hydrogenAt this temperature, it will boil into a gaseous state, and below this temperature it will become a colorless and transparent liquid. The melting point of hydrogen is -259.1℃, which is 13.96K. At this temperature, it will become a snowflake-like solid..

Even if it is such liquid hydrogen obtained on earth, what kind of submarine can withstand such a cold?

And the density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8kg/m^3, the density of solid hydrogen is 86kg/m^3. On the earth, the submarine is sailing in water, the density of water is 1000kg/m^3, it is liquid hydrogen14 times, it is difficult to make a ship or submarine float. If you sail in liquid hydrogen, what materials are needed to make this submarine to float, and can withstand the low temperature of minus 259 ℃?

The density of foam plastic is 100~400kg/m^3, which is several times greater than the density of liquid hydrogen, but steel is also several times greater than the density of water. It can be floated by clever design. But who dares to ride in foamIn a submarine made of plastic, sailing at a low temperature of -259℃? You must know that the minimum temperature tolerance of foam is only -80℃, and the temperature of liquid hydrogen is more than three times lower than this.

The formation of liquid hydrogen on Jupiter is completely different from that of Earth.

Liquid hydrogen is formed on Jupiter due to high temperature and pressure.

Jupiter is a huge gaseous planet, and the entire planet is dominated by gas. Jupiter's atmosphere is composed of about 88~92% hydrogen and 8~12% helium according to molecular weight, with a small amount of other components. According to mass, it is about75% hydrogen and 24% helium, and about 1% methane, water vapor, ammonia and other gases.

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. There are eight planets in the solar system. The mass of one Jupiter is 2.5 times the sum of the other seven planets. The radius of Jupiter is 71492km, which is more than 11 times that of the earth. Its volume is 1300.Many times, the quality is 318 times that of the earth.

Jupiter does not have a solid surface, only a relatively small rock star core. This core is generally considered to be about 2 times the volume of the earth, and about 10 to 15 times the mass of the earth. The volume is increased by a factor of 1.26 times the radius of the earth, that is to say, this coreIt's about 8000km, and Jupiter's radius is 71492km. In addition to this inner core, there is 63492km of gas on it.

What is this 63492km Jupiter gas layered structure?

It is generally believed that the thickness of about 5000km deep on the surface of Jupiter's atmosphere is the process of changing from gaseous phase to liquid hydrogen. With the deepening, the atmospheric density will become greater and greater, and the pressure and temperature will become higher and higher, and the gaseous state will graduallyThe phase becomes liquid hydrogen. The pressure to form liquid hydrogen is already hundreds of thousands of millions of Earth's atmospheric pressure, and the temperature has reached thousands of K to tens of thousands of K.

The thickness of liquid hydrogen is about 25000km thick. With the increase of the depth of liquid hydrogen, the pressure will become greater and the temperature will become higher. Liquid hydrogen will gradually become metal liquid hydrogen. Although it is called metal hydrogen, butBecause it is formed under high temperature and pressure, the metal hydrogen here is not solid, but melted and dense liquid. The temperature here has reached more than 10,000K and the pressure has reached more than 3.6 million, which is higher than the core pressure of the earth.

The metal hydrogen layer is also called Jupiter's hydrogen mantle layer, which is equivalent to the Earth's mantle. The thickness of this hydrogen mantle layer is about 33000km. The temperature here gradually increases from 10,000 K to more than 20,000 K, and the pressure gradually increases from several million atmospheric pressure.Increased to hundreds of millions of atmospheric pressure. At the rock core of Jupiter, the temperature reaches 30,000K, which is 5 times the temperature of the sun’s surface, and the pressure reaches 300 million, which is about 100 times the pressure of the earth’s core. In such a special environment, in fact, JupiterThe core is also not solid, showing a melted brown sugar or waxy shape. It is a strange substance that is both flexible and harder than diamonds. This state cannot be simulated on Earth.

The submarine is at the end of Jupiter.

In an extreme environment like Jupiter, if there is a submarine really there, what kind of ending?

First of all, after entering the Jupiter's atmosphere, this submarine has to pass the test of ice and fire. The surface temperature of Jupiter's atmosphere is -148℃, which is nothing, because the spacecraft launched by humans have to pass this cold test;But as Jupiter's great gravity pulls, this submarine will fall faster and faster, and it can't wait for Jupiter itself to be burned in friction with the atmosphere as the depth pressure and temperature change. The Cassini probe is completedAfter the mission to Saturn, plunge into the atmosphere of Saturn and turn it into a brilliant spark, which is a lesson.

Even if this submarine is made of special materials and has not been burned by atmospheric friction, it cannot withstand higher and higher pressures and temperatures. No earth material can withstand the high temperature and pressure of the liquid hydrogen layer, and it has long melted into a pool of liquidDebris, if this beach of debris is not disturbed by liquid hydrogen, it must be denser than liquid hydrogen, so it will sink all the time, sink into the metal hydrogen, and eventually sink to the Jupiter nucleus.

At the very high temperature, any substance will vaporize, but under the high temperature and high pressure in the depth of Jupiter, the substance can only be transformed into a liquid phase and cannot be vaporized.

"Submarine" can only stay on the wood core.

Although the Jupiter nucleus is in a molten state, the density is much larger than that of the earth. From the double volume of the earth, but the mass of the earth is 10 to 15 times, it can be seen that the density is at least 5 to 7 times larger than the earth, and the density of the earth is 5.5g/cm^3, 5 times is about 30g/cm^3, which is about 4 times the density of iron 7.8g/cm^3, so it is impossible for this beach debris to sink into the core of Jupiter, only on the coreInside the metal hydrogen forever.

Perhaps this is the home of this submarine, it is still "snorkeling", but the people who are going to explore inside have become particles and are integrated with this "submarine".

Of course, this submarine really has to enter Jupiter's atmosphere, and there are still many tests waiting for it, such as Jupiter Storm and Jupiter Thunderbolt, which are many times more powerful than Earth. At present, there is no way for humans to respond.

So in the foreseeable future, Jupiter is a place inaccessible to humans.

The deepest part of the scientific investigation, probably entering the atmosphere one hundred kilometers, the method is to release a detector that has no return, such as the Juno detector, after completing all Jupiter exploration missions, it is ready to pierce.Into Jupiter's atmosphere, using just a few minutes before it was burned, to obtain some data deeper on the surface of Jupiter's atmosphere.

The predecessors of the Juno, Galileo and Cassini, have already made such attempts, and it will also succeed.

Thanks for reading and welcome to discuss.

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