In Liping, the cow flat derived from the traditional Dong medicine "Baicao Soup" not only represents the Dong people's "medicine and food homology" food culture, but also has become a "net celebrity dark dish" sought after by countless people.

2020-08-28 | Authentic scenery Original |

So, what is expensive? It is the picturesque green mountains and green waters, the thousand-year-old culture nurtured in the mountains and rivers, the amazing rise of thousands of years of accumulation, and the world of paradise and fireworks that is still warm and tender during the rise.

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Guizhou is the only province in the country without plains.

Guiyang Qianchun Overpass, yes, this is Guizhou today. Photography/Tianqi

In the past two thousand years, no one would link Guizhou with the word "speed" in any case. But in the past 10 years, there has been no province in China, which is more suitable to describe "speed" than Guizhou.

As if pressing the fast forward button-Guizhou GDP broke through the "trillion mark" in 2015, and after the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, it has always grown by double digits, and its growth rate has ranked among the top three in the country for 8 consecutive years.

The Malinghe Bridge of Banba-Jiangdi Expressway, located in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province, crosses the famous national 4A-level scenic spot-Malinghe Grand Canyon. The main span of the bridge is 360 meters, the first in the provincePrestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge with twin towers and twin cable planes. Photography/Tang Keke

Tens of thousands of bridges, tunnels with a total length of one million meters across mountains and waters, with 6,453 kilometers of expressway mileage, took the lead in completing the "county-county highway" in the west, and became a southwest transportation hub from "no land, three miles and flat".

At the same time, it maintains an incomparable and colorful culture-18 generations of inhabitants have inherited here, more than 500 provincial-level intangible cultural heritages complement each other, and 11 national-level nature reserves open up a pure land.In the 128,000 square kilometers of karst outcropping area, strange mountains and waters are extremely difficult to see.

Guizhou Expressway Network. Mapping/Paprika

The big data industry is like a "roller coaster". The Internet bandwidth out of the province exceeded 10,000 Gbps, and the province's "cloud enterprises" reached more than 10,000 households. The growth rate of the digital economy ranked first in the country for four consecutive years, and the provincial capitalGuiyang was shortlisted for the first batch of 5G cities.

The planting scale of tea, pepper, and dragon fruit ranks No. 1 in the country. 7 million acres of tea sea is reflected in the sky, and the annual output reaches 362,000 tons, which is enough to bring nearly 7.6 billion people in the world in one week.Drink a good cup of tea every day

Text丨Ye Yinxiao

Inheritance. Photography/Song Weihua

Hundreds of millions of years of natural forces have created this "Karst Kingdom". The accumulation of two thousand years has formed the colorful culture here. Now Guizhou has broken through the barriers of mountains and rivers with decades of "work in the day and evening", revealing its ambitionsRong’s rise.

What is expensive? I'm afraid everyone has different answers in their hearts.

250 million years ago, Guizhou was still hidden in a vast ocean.

The ichthyosaurs of the Mesozoic era dominate and run rampant here, and the sea lilies of various poses "bloom" and follow the waves. A large number of ancient marine life flourishes and disappears here, leaving only the bones to go down with the sand and other substances.Together they deposited on the seafloor, forming a vast and thick carbonate formation.

Guizhou Yulong Photography/Li Guiyun

At the far north, the Dalou Mountain rises up to become a natural barrier between the Guizhou Plateau and the Sichuan Basin. There is only one natural barrier, Loushan Pass, which stands on the main peak at 1,576 meters above sea level.Mo Kai".

Since then, on the one hand, the collision between the plates made the sea become land, and the rock layers gradually surfaced during the uplift; on the other hand, the large amount of precipitation brought by the hot and humid climate in southern China continued to dissolve the surface. In this eventIn the hundreds of millions of years of "struggle", the Guizhou Plateau, as the main battlefield for water and soil, has become fragmented and devastated, forming a large area of ​​karst landform.

Map of China's karst geomorphology. Picture/Paprika

The pattern of "eight mountains, one river and one field" in Guizhou is completely natural. From the map, if the provincial capital Guiyang is the center and extends to all sides, the entire Guizhou is besieged by mountains.

The westernmost part, at the junction of Yunnan and Guizhou, the majestic Wumeng Mountain was born out of the sky and stretches from north to south. The Jiucaiping on the mountain is 2,901 meters above sea level, which is the highest peak in Guizhou.

To the southwest, Wanfenglin in Xingyi seems to be spreading a huge natural picture on the ground, with nearly 20,000 verdant peaks on display during which it is difficult to describe the whole picture with the power of ancient painters.

Full view of Loushan Pass. Photography/He Xiongzhou

In the northeast, the Wuling Mountain range penetrated into Guizhou from western Hunan, and its main peak, Fanjing Mountain mainly metamorphic rocks, protruded in a karst ocean, as if a "high monk and great virtue" was unique and independent.

In the middle of Guizhou, Miaoling Mountain runs across the whole territory and extends to southeast Guizhou. The screaming mountains and the basins and wide valleys interspersed between mountains create a secret place of Miao and Dong.

Danzhai Tea Garden, located on Niujiao Mountain at an altitude of 1693 meters, surrounded by clouds and mist all year round. Photography/Wei Chaoyang

And among these mountains, there are eight major river systems criss-crossed, and there are 93 rivers over 50 kilometers in length. These rivers pass through the deep valleys of the high gorge along the high west and low east of the Guizhou Plateau.From the central part to the north, east and south three directions.

Jianglizhixia Wujiang Bridge—G75 Lanhai Expressway Guizun Section. Photography/Zhangjiayu

With Miaoling in central Guizhou as the boundary, and to the north of the watershed, the five rivers Niulan, Hengjiang, Wujiang, Chishui, and Qijiang go north all the way to the Yangtze River; while Jinjiang, Yanghe and Qingshuijiang go eastward.Flow into the territory of Hunan and arrive at Dongting Lake.

Qingshuihe. Photography / Li Guiyun

Therefore, the land of Guizhou is like a chessboard that is almost "finished".

South of the watershed, the Pearl River system that breeds in the Wumeng Mountains, is divided into two tributaries of the Nanpan River and Beipan River, which cut deeply through the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, and eventually become the Red River, which runs southeast along the Guizhou-Guangxi border.It flows to Guangdong and Guangxi. In addition, the Liujiang River flows from the east in the southeast corner and merges into the Pearl River system through Guangxi.

The forests of thousands of mountains and the cutting of thousands of waters form a deep, steep and daunting karst gorge on the top, and the "underground kingdom" of psychedelic magnificence and amorous feelings was born on the bottom.

Photo Editor丨Yuan Qianxi

Map Editor丨Paprika

Jiudongtian is composed of nine big caves and several dark lakes and karst caves. The Liuchong River in the upper reaches of the Wujiang River system passes through the caves. Picture / Visual China

The Beipanjiang Grand Canyon in Guanling is majestic and majestic. If you look down from the clouds, it looks as if the heavens and human beings are angry, raising an axe in their hands, and cleaving a "earth scar" that stretches for nearly 14 kilometers back and forth, and the deepest depth exceeds a kilometer.

Beipan River Grand Canyon. Photo / Visual China

The Maling River Gorge in Xingyi has beautiful landscapes. Among the 80 kilometers of rolling mountains, hundreds of waterfalls produced by a thousand-meter drop are arranged in order. The stream flows straight down and arouses thick water mist.Seeing it, it's as if a lot of white practice is hanging down on the cloud.

The Miao people who have migrated from the North China Plain are said to be the descendants of Chiyou from the Central Plains five thousand years ago. In the Mashan area in the southwest, there is a heroic epic "King Yalu" that records that period of migration.'S singing responds to the ultimate question of life of "where did it come from, where it will go, and where it will go".

To Anshun in the hinterland of Central Guizhou, where the Dabang River passes, Huangguoshu Waterfall descends like a milky way, and it washes the world. Under the rapids, the rock layer rises slowly and firmly while being eroded day by day by the flowing water., The waterfall also gradually recedes to the source. This phenomenon known as "tracing erosion" indicates that the protracted "mountain and river battle" is still continuing and never ending.

Huangguoshu Waterfall. Picture/Visual China

If the waterfall curtain of Huangguoshu makes people worry that a natural stone monkey will jump out at any time, then the underground dragon palace 35 kilometers away seems to have been "ransacked" by the Monkey King and stolen in the "Dinghai Shenzhen"After that, it has gone through ups and downs and became riddled with holes, becoming the world's largest and most flood-drought cave group.

Zhijin Cave, known as "King of Karst Cave". Photography/Yang Xiuyong

At the southernmost Libo, caves, forests, lakes, waterfalls, rocks, water and other landscapes have grown between the heavy rocks. The exquisite and beautiful small seven holes in Libo can be called a miniature version.The complete karst map is like a "super bonsai".

With the river as the latitude and longitude, the black and white two pieces are like connected peaks and ridges, and the crucial gap between the pieces is just like the only flat land remaining on this piece of land. It is called "eye" and "qi" in a chess game.", and in Guizhou people, it is called "ba, chong, ping, au, pond, slope", and "bazi" is the most common.

It was the people on the dam that made this game of chess alive.

To Sandu Shui Autonomous County in southern Qiannan, Shui Shu is a pictograph that has been handed down to this day. Mr. Shui Shu, who holds the "Shui Book of Changes", is responsible for the weddings and funerals of the entire ethnic group, maintaining the township between the mountains and rivers.The inheritance of wild etiquette.

"There is no Jiazi in the mountains, and the cold is not known for years". The barrier of the environment makes it difficult for people living on "Bazi" to communicate. Here, the years seem to have stopped.

Zhaoxing Dong Village. Photo/Visual China

Therefore, in the past thousand years, the integration and development of many ethnic groups in Guizhou has been extremely slow, just like the scattered "islands" in the karst ocean; but now, it is because of the relative independence and the ancient hidden among the mountains.The traditions are well preserved, forming a colorful national culture.

Miao embroidery. Photo courtesy/Zeng Li

In Guizhou, 56 ethnic groups have left their unique traces, and 18 ethnic groups have settled here for generations. The Han people usually live near towns and transportation lines. The Miao, Yao and Yi people often camp in the mountains, GelaoThe tribe favors life in the valley, and the Buyi, Dong and Shui tribes live near the water.

Miao batik in Danzhai, Guizhou. Photography / Li Ruoyu

The silver jewelry of the Miao nationality is their never-fading trend. As far back as the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Miao people in Southeast Guizhou transported local precious wood from the Qingshui River to various places, and even became the "imperial wood" used in palace construction.The large amount of silver in exchange for this was turned into ingenious silver jewelry and worn on the girls, so that there is a saying that "no silver or flowers, no girl; clothes without silver, no dress".

There are also Davidia involucrata, which came out 60 million years ago, relying on its seed dormancy, spanning a long river, and settled in Guizhou. At the turn of spring and summer, the trees and white flowers resemble white pigeons clustering high on the branches.

A Miao girl wearing silver ornaments. Photography / Lu Wen

Clothes under silver ornaments replaced temples, ancestral halls and other buildings and became the "walking faith" of the Miao people. The curled patterns in Miao embroidery symbolized their perception that the universe originated from "a chaos"; andThe most common image of a butterfly is the "butterfly mother" regarded by the Miao nationality as the ancestor of all living things; the maple tree where the butterfly inhabits has become the sacred tree of the Miao people, and often appears in cross-section in Miao embroidery;There is an "ancestral house" bird house, which represents the space reserved for ancestors in the hearts of the Miao people.

Footprint | Tang Keke

Edit | Zhang Yu

Basha Miao Village, Congjiang County. Photography / Shu Zhongsheng

And when the people of ancient Yue lived here, the derived Buyi, Dong, Shui, etc. brought a certain "water village temperament" to this mountain.

The most romantic Dong people advocate connecting the entire ethnic group with music. The famous Dong nationality big song, played by the drum tower of Dongzhai in the depths of the mountain, has been sung by generations of people and has become famous overseas, and there are friends in the world.And as the Australian scholar Ying Qianlei said, what is sung in foreign performances can be called the "stage tradition" of the big song of the Dong people; what is circulated in the drum tower and the village is the "village tradition"——

Before entering the village, the Dong people had a "blocking song" symbolizing friendship; after drinking and eating, they gathered in the building to narrate with songs; the most secret is the "walking song by men and women in the wooden house"", the tune goes back and forth hundreds of times, showing the romantic style of "the ancient Yue people".

The Buyi people built a "white stone stockade" by the water. The blue and white porcelain-like batik in the village was dyed with cotton and linen and blue indigo. They joined hands with the Miao people to make Anshun into a world-renowned "batik".Town of".

Shuishi. Photography/Li Guiyun

And in Tunpu in Anshun, there are descendants of the Ming army who "turned north and conquered south" 600 years ago. On the Tunpu people’s headdress, the top zuanjian symbolizes the mountain, the square jade at the bottom represents the field, and the middleThe shuttle shape is like a river, and the silver thread connecting up and down conveys the lovesickness of the Tunpu women for recruiting people. Between square inches, it is full of family and country feelings.

Because of the barriers of mountains and rivers, Guizhou in ancient times was often used as a place of exile, a place of exploration and a place of refuge, which instead left a strong mark in Chinese cultural history. Seventy miles northwest of Guiyang, Wang Yangming onceAfter enlightening in Longchang, the flowers and trees of Nanshan still bloom in the hearts of the people of the world; Wanfenglin in Xingyi, the well-known "allier" Xu Xiake, once visited here, and praised the "ticket circle": "What are the peaks of the world?Many, only here is the peak into the forest"; And the Huayan Cave in Anshun, during the Anti-Japanese War, hidden the national treasure of the Forbidden City to move south, silently guarding the heritage of Chinese civilization...

Wanfenglin surrounded by mist. Photo/Visual China

In ancient times, the barrier of heavy mountains made it difficult for Guizhou to travel by land. Therefore, Liu Zongyuan of the Tang Dynasty said that “there is no donkey in Guizhou” and it must be carried by a ship. What is quite dramatic is that in 1927, the first car in Guizhou was alsoZhou Xicheng, the chairman of the province at the time, was transported from the Liujiang River in Guangxi. The sound of cars shook the mountains and rivers. In the same year, the first modern highway in Guizhou, Guiyang Huancheng Road, was built.

If "Bazi" is the poetic habitat of people, then the continuous green hills are the paradise for the survival of animals and plants.

Look at Fan Jingjiaozi’s thick and beautiful hair, and you know how good life is here. Photography/Li Guiyun

Another, equally rare black leaf monkey, only hunts for food among inaccessible, sparsely grassed cliffs. It gathers on the top of the mountain during the day and inhabits the cave at night, just like a mountain hermit who "lives deep and simple".

So far, the bridge of Guizhou occupies half of the world’s top ten high bridges. The highways built on these bridges form a network extending in all directions, connecting Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hunan. In addition,The Wujiang waterway is fully connected, and the ancient waterway is rejuvenated; and not far away, the high-speed rail is fast approaching Guiyang-Guiyang is speeding up the construction of the top ten high-speed rail hubs in the country, forming a link between the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and Sichuan-ChongqingYunnan's fast track. This southwest transportation hub formed after thousands of years is the best interpretation of "Guizhou Speed".

Leigong Mountain, the main peak of Miaoling Mountains, has not been looted by the cold of Quaternary glaciers and has become a refuge for many ancient creatures. There are nearly 2000 species of various animals and plants, and 43 species are listed as rare and endangered by the state.The Leishan mustache toad, named after the mountain, is a unique species here.

Some pictures and text selections of this article are adapted from "Typical Scenery·Guizhou"

Reference material

Moustache toad. Photography/Chen Peiliang

And in the Chishui area, the "living fossils" with extremely harsh living conditions-Alsophila spinulosa are concentrated here. This ancient fern can only transition from the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the Sichuan Basin, so the altitude is low, hot and humid.Survive in the Chishui "oasis".

On the other hand, whether it is the "hedonism" from Sichuan and Chongqing, or the "fashion" culture brought by the people from Jiangnan during the Anti-Japanese War, and even the prosperity of modern cities, they all smoothly integrate into this "Xanadu", It adds a bit of human fireworks.

Once the road was blocked and blocked, the most precious cultural heritage and ecological environment have been preserved for Guizhou, making time solidify here, space folded here, once released, it will be like a mighty colorful picture scroll, stunningcome out.

Azalea Sea of ​​Baili Baili in Bijie, Guizhou. Photography/Wang Chunliang

And the "old Guizhou people" who walked slowly from the foot of Wumeng Mountain, Qingshui River, Mingtunbao, Yelang's hometown, and Yue people's song that opened up the way out of the Qiandao mountain were also from all over the world."New Guizhou people" who have passed the "Xiong Pass and Man Road" and have been through all the obstacles.

In China, the concept of "country" originated in the Central Plains. When the mountain barrier was gradually broken, Guizhou's geographical advantage became prominent. This ancient "land outside of the land" gradually became the guardian of the southwest.Traffic fortress.

In Zunyi, although the local people agree with the Bashu culture, they still incorporate the low-key and simple nature of Guizhou. At that time, Tao Huabi, a native of Meitan, came to Guiyang and sold jelly, cold noodles and rice tofu on the street at affordable prices. I don’t know how much comfort.Hungry for poor students, they were affectionately referred to as "Lao Ganma." Who would think that 20 years later, "Lao Ganma" has become the "legendary of the rivers and lakes" in the hot sauce world, but still low-key and detached, "no financing,Not to be listed" nor to accept media interviews.

In Kaili, Suantang Fish still continues the old age of the Miao people "substituting hot and sour salt for salt", while the fashionable restaurants with "Kaili Suantang Fish" as their signature are quite popular all over the country.

Jiangjiehe Bridge is located in Jiangjiehe Scenic Area, Weng'an County, Guizhou Province. The bridge is a truss composite arch bridge. Among the similar bridges at that time, the Jiangjiehe Bridge ranked the forefront in the world. Photography/Chen Peiliang

2500 years ago, in order to fight against the strong Qin who had occupied Pakistan and Shu, the State of Chu sent out strange soldiers to outflank the rear of the Qin army. This lone army led by Chu Jiang Zhuangqiao went all the way westward to the Yuan River and rushed rashly.Entered the vast mountains and rivers of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Although this operation failed-Chu was destroyed by Qin, Zhuangqiao moved from Guizhou to Yunnan, and finally became king. The road taken by this expeditionary army becameIt is a template for later entry into Guizhou.

And what really made Guizhou famous was Bowanghou, Zhang Qian, of the Western Han Dynasty. After he drove through the Western Regions, he also hoped to find a road that leads directly to the body poison now India, so he went to the southwest and met on the wayAfter the King of Dian and the King of Yelang. The two older brothers simultaneously raised a question: Who is our country bigger than that of a big man? The term "Yelang arrogant" has since spread.

In the Song and Yuan dynasties, in order to resist the Mongolian iron cavalry going south, a fortress built between the mountains—Hailongtun was erected, echoing the Diaoyucheng of Hezhou now Hechuan District, Chongqing, with the intention of relying on the mountains"In the end, following the accidental death of Meng Ge in Diaoyucheng, the army went eastward and led troops to Xiangyang. Before the Southwest Xiongguan had time to shed blood, he suffered the "pain of the Song Dynasty" and had to look north..

By the Ming Dynasty, the status of Guizhou's "Southwest Fortress" was fully revealed. In the early Ming Dynasty, along the route from Zhuangqiao to Yunnan that year, Zhu Yuanzhang sent hundreds of thousands of troops from the Central Plains, two lakes, Jiangxi and Jianghuai from QingshuijiangIn the middle of Guizhou, after today’s Guiyang and Anshun, troops were stationed in order to conquer Yunnan. After the war, 200,000 Ming troops who "transferred north and conquered south" were ordered to garrison Guizhou, southwest of Yongzhen. Since then, countless tunpus have become the border of the empire.

Zhusheng Bridge in Zhenyuan Ancient City. Photography/Lu Wen

During this period, the Qingshui River flows through the east of Guizhou, the Yanghe River has become an important channel for the import of food from Huguang in the future, and the Xiongcheng Town, known as "the key of Yunnan and Chu, the gateway to east of Guizhou", was born from this. Until the end of Qing Dynasty, On the consecrated bridge across the Yang River, there are still Burmese envoys riding elephants, changing boats, and flowing into Hunan.

Chishui River. Photography/Yang Yuande

In the Wanli reign, Hailongtun, which was rejected by the Mongol army in the north, became the base of the Yang family rebellion in Bozhou now Zunyi, Guizhou that had been entrenched for 700 years. A 114-day "horizontal battle" was cleared.The final military and financial power of the dynasty, so later historians have said that "Ming Dynasty died in Wanli".

At the foot of Dalou Mountain. Photography/Lv Changjun

Special statement

The Loushan Pass, which was extremely important in this war, never faded from the name of "natural danger". More than three hundred years later, when the Red Army passed through this place, the song "Remembering Qin'e·Loushan Pass" made it last foreverHistory, behind the heroic “Xiongguan Mandao is really like iron, and now stepping forward from the beginning” is a piece of “cang mountains like sea, setting sun like blood”.

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Authentic scenery
On the one hand, thousands of years of living in the mountains have left their bones with a low-key and self-confidence of the "Peach Blossom Spring" style, sitting on the best of the world without making publicity, living in a small town without being impetuous, and thus they have a sense of dustBreath. e-mail: