# What is the fastest man-made object, what are the future breakthrough points, and what is the current progress?

2020-08-31 | Time and Space Communication Original |

The fastest man-made objects, the concept is a bit vague, it depends on how to understand the relationship between speed and speed. There are many things that are the fastest in modern times. For example, the fastest thing I am proud of is "Say Cao Cao Cao Cao". Cao Cao is a character of the Three Kingdoms era. He has been dead for 1,800 years. The yin and yang can still be separated from the past. How fast do you say?

Just kidding, adjust the atmosphere, the science of the province is always weird and serious, please don't take it seriously. Here are some of the fastest things in modern and future:

• Femtosecond technology.

In 2018, the teams from the California Institute of Technology Cal-tech and the French National Institute of Security INRS developed the world's fastest camera, refreshing the 5 trillion frames per second shooting speed set by the Swedish scientific team, Creating a shooting speed of 10 trillion frames per second.

What is the concept? That is, the speed of light is 300,000 kilometers per second, which is considered the fastest limit speed in the world. But this kind of camera can take light in a path of 1 second and take 100,000 frames of photos, that is, light per second.Walking 10um micrometer, a picture was taken. How much is 10um? That is 1/100mm millimeter.

Is this speed considered fast? Just a few decades ago, people often argued because of the indistinguishability of something very fast. For example, when swimming and racing reached the end, some players were as short as 1μs microseconds., One millionth of a second, it’s hard to tell the victory or defeat. If you use the current technology, 10 million frames of photos have been taken in 1 microsecond; even if the gap between the players is only 1ns nanosecond, one billionth of a second,It is also very clear to distinguish, because in 1ns, the femtosecond camera has taken 10,000 frames of photos.

Therefore, even objects that escape at the speed of light will be clear under this camera and have nowhere to escape. This technology is called femtosecond technology. We know that 1fs femtosecond is one quadrillionth of a secondAt present, this technology has not reached the real 1fs1 frame speed, but only 100 femtoseconds can take 1 frame. But this kind of camera has been able to capture the nano-level interaction between light and matter, which is the most important for exploring the depths of the world.Fine structure played a major role.

This research is still under the advancement of scientists around the world, and it is expected that in the foreseeable future, the femtosecond technology of shooting one frame of picture in 1 femtosecond will be truly realized. At that time, under such fiery eyes, no monsters and ghosts will be able to escape.Many phenomena can be solved.

• Three cosmic speeds.

If you want to talk about the moving speed of man-made objects, the fastest is of course the space probe. We know that on the earth, the moving speed of any object generally does not exceed 7.9 kilometers per second, because this speed is the first universeSpeed. At this speed, the earth cannot hold it, and it will become a man-made satellite orbiting the earth. Only when their speed decreases, they will be pulled down by the earth's gravity.

The first cosmic speed cannot escape the gravitational circle of the earth, nor will it be pulled down by the earth's gravity, so it is called the orbiting speed. All man-made satellite launches must reach this speed, and then execute different speeds according to different operating altitudes.To escape the gravity of the earth, it must reach the second cosmic speed, which is 11.2 kilometers per second. Probes flying to other planets must be greater than this speed to be able to escape the gravity of the earth, so it is called the detachment speed; and the third cosmic speedThat is, at the position of the earth, the speed of escaping the gravity of the sun is 16.7 kilometers per second, referred to as escape velocity.

The formulas for calculating the velocities of the three universes are: orbiting velocity V1=GM/r; escape velocity V2=√2GM/r; escape velocity V3=√V2^2+v"^2. In the formula,V1, V2, and V3 are the three cosmic speed values ​​respectively, G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of the celestial body to escape the gravitation, r is the distance between the man-made object and the center of mass of the celestial body. The v" in the escape velocity formula is the escape velocity of the earth-revolutionThe speed is 42.2-29.8=12.4km; V2 is the second cosmic speed.

• Currently the fastest artificial celestial body.

Currently, human-launched probes are designed to launch at different speeds according to different target missions. Voyager 1 is flying towards the outside of the solar system at a speed of 17 kilometers per second. This speed is completely free from the sun’s gravity and flyTo deep space.

Actually, the speed of the detectors sent by humans is far greater than that of Voyager 1. The fastest record so far is the Parker Solar Probe launched by NASA in 2018. This detector is the first of humansA real stellar detector, which has set the record of being the closest to the sun, is braving the high temperature in the sun's corona atmosphere to touch the sun, the tiger's butt, in order to figure out some mechanisms such as the formation of solar wind, and to predict and prevent the sun for mankindCatastrophe and work hard.

Now the speed of the Parker has exceeded 100 kilometers per second, and it is still getting closer to the sun. Now the various interplanetary probes launched by humans have reached speeds exceeding the third cosmic speed, not by launching or carryingThe fuel is achieved through the gravitational slingshot effect of the planet or the sun. The same is true for Parker, which uses the gravitational slingshot effect of the earth, Venus, and the sun to make itself faster and faster.

By December 2024, Parker will reach the closest position to the sun's surface, and it will be only 6 million kilometers away from the sun. According to the principle of conservation of angular momentum, the speed will reach about 200 kilometers per second. This will be the creation of artificial celestial bodies.The highest speed record.

• Going to deep space must break through the speed bottleneck.

Humans are going to deep space after all, but relying on the current speed of hundreds of kilometers per second, it is unrealistic to fly out of the solar system. Therefore, breaking through the speed bottleneck has always been a major problem in modern science and technology.

The speed of light is the fastest speed in our world. No object can reach the speed of light, let alone exceed the speed of light. This is the rule set by Einstein's theory of relativity and has become a consensus in the scientific community. Therefore, spacecraft must rely onIt is impossible to increase the speed to the speed of light.

And the vast expanse of the universe is too big for human beings, so big that even if it reaches the speed of light, it can't go far. For example, our Milky Way has a diameter of 200,000 light-years, the nearest large galaxy to us~The Andromeda Galaxy, There are 2.54 million light-years. This means that even if humans have a spacecraft close to the speed of light, it will take one hundred thousand years to fly out of the Milky Way, and it takes millions of years to fly to the Andromeda Galaxy.

So even if a spacecraft can fly close to the speed of light, humans can't go far.

• Super-light fantasy.

Since it is impossible for the movement of matter to surpass the speed of light, humans turn their attention to the direct movement of non-material. There are several opportunities. One is the folding of time and space, which is to fold time and space like paper, just like aPut the folding fan so that people can cross from one end to the other like an unopened folding fan. It doesn't seem to have traveled much, but it spans many light years. This speed can theoretically reach the destination N times faster than the speed of light.

There is another kind of wormhole crossing, that is, under the action of a large gravitational field, a "wormhole" will appear in time and space, just like a bug bites a small hole on a huge piece of paper, and people can get through the paperThis side suddenly crosses to the other side of the paper. If you want to crawl from the paper slowly, it takes 100 light years to climb to the other side, and it only takes a few minutes or a few hours to wear this way. This is much faster than the speed of light.Times? So people call wormholes space-time tunnel, scientific name is Einstein~Rosen Bridge.

Both methods can reach the destination N times faster than the speed of light, but it is not the speed of the spacecraft itself, but the use of warp engines to achieve space-time folding and crossing or short-cutting tunnels to reach the target. How fast the spacecraft should flyFast, there is no huge time dilation effect, and it does not violate the restriction of the speed of light barrier in the theory of relativity.

These two methods to break through the bottleneck of the speed of light are theoretically feasible. The theoretical basis is Einstein's general relativity theory and the theory of space-time bending. But it is very difficult to implement because the warp engine must be implemented around the spacecraftFolding time and space, or artificially creating and maintaining a wormhole, requires huge energy, which is unimaginable. Someone has calculated that even if the entire Jupiter is converted to mass-energy, it will not drive a small spacecraft how far..

Therefore, although these ideas have been studied in the plan so far, there have been no major breakthroughs. It is difficult to predict whether they will succeed.

• There are two plans for speed improvement closer to reality.

One of the plans: NASA released a century-old starship plan in the last century. The specific content is to build a 50,000-ton-class starship within 100 years, using nuclear fusion to become power, reaching 12% of the speed of light, which is36,000 kilometers per second. This starship will carry humans to fly out of the solar system to find new colonies. However, the current controlled nuclear fusion is still under experiment, and some people think it will take 50 years to be commercialized. This planIt was still proposed during Clinton’s presidency. Later, there was less and less news. Whether there was any major progress is unknown.

Plan two: In April 2016, Hawking personally initiated a project called "Breakthrough Photograph" when he was alive. He cooperated with the Russian tycoon to plan to build 1,000 miniature spacecraft. This spacecraft uses light sails as traction, eachGuangfan pulls a miniature spacecraft and flies to Proxima Star 4.22 light-years away. Guangfan uses a high-power laser array to drive it, and finally reaches 20% of the speed of light, 60,000 kilometers per second, so that it only needs to fly to Proxima.More than 20 years.

The miniature spacecraft is the size of a postage stamp, with communication and navigation facilities on it, as well as high-speed cameras and various detection equipment. After arriving at Proxima, I took a photo of what it looked like at a glimpse at a speed of 60,000 kilometers per second.Come down and send back the detected data and photos together.

• The difficulty of this plan is:

Can the laser array installed on the earth drive the light sail to reach this speed? All the equipment of the micro spacecraft must be manufactured with nanometer precision. Can it be made? Navigation and information transmission require very precise, more than 4 light yearsIt’s difficult to predict whether this project will succeed in the end, and it’s hard to predict whether these technical problems can be solved in the end with the weak power of this nano-scale spacecraft. Hawking has left the human world, soThere is no news on whether the plan can continue.

Some people think that Hawking’s plan was a big flicker. When he died, it disappeared. I don’t think so. Science is constantly advancing on the whims of such generations of scientists, even if this plan is temporarilyIt cannot be achieved, but at least it provides a kind of inspiration for future generations.

• This reminds me of human exploration about the speed of light.

For thousands of years, people have never realized that light still has speed, thinking that light is filling the world like this. But Galileo, a great pioneer of experimental science, had a different head from others. He noticed this. He believed that light thoughIt's fast, but it has speed and can be measured. So, he did an experiment in which two assistants stood on two hills 1 mile apart, held lanterns in their hands, and timed the 1 mile by blocking the light.The transit time of light.

Know that it only takes 186,000ths of a second for light to travel between 1 mile. This crude method and the speed resolution limit of the human eye, of course, there is no way to calculate the speed of light. But Galileo’s inspiration has inspired generationsScientists, after more than 300 years of Galileo's experiment on the speed of light, people finally got the accurate speed of light. This is the most important constant in physics, c=299792458m/s.

This story tells us that the biggest driving force for humans to move forward is to be full of curiosity about the world, and to unlock the secrets of the world through continuous exploration. The speed is also like this. With the unremitting efforts of generations of scientists, the bottleneck is bound to beBreak, mankind will eventually go to deep space.

That's it, discussion is welcome, thanks for reading.

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