# Electrons are elementary particles. How heavy are all electrons on the earth? It is said to be only one kilogram, is it true?

Electron is the first elementary particle discovered by mankind. If it is an elementary particle, it is more interesting that in 1897 JJ Thomson discovered the particle nature of electrons and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1906. HisSon GP Thomson won the 1937 Nobel Prize for verifying De Broglie wave, that is, the volatility of electrons!

So electron is an extremely contradictory complex, it has wave-particle duality, and its mass is extremely small. It is said that the total amount of electrons in the world is only one kilogram. Is this really the case?

Electronics and Quantum Mechanics

The development of quantum mechanics was first caused by photons. This is the most famous blackbody radiation problem at the end of the nineteenth century. The Wien formula is very accurate on short waves, while the Rayleigh Kings formula is very accurate on long waves. PlanckThe quantum discontinuity explains the black body radiation, and the fit is perfect in the whole waveband! Planck's quantum hypothesis and Einstein's photoelectric theory opened the most important quantum mechanics of the twentieth century.

From then on, the description of the electron movement inside the atom runs through the entire history of quantum mechanics. First, Rutherford’s Bohr perfected Rutherford’s atomic model with semi-quantization, and then Pauli’s incompatibility explained the electronIt will not fall into the nucleus due to the Coulomb force of the proton! Then the Heisenberg uncertainty principle describes the reason why the position and momentum of the electron cannot be measured at the same time, and Schrödinger’s wave equation explains the volatility of the electron, and finallyBoll summarized the wave-particle duality. Of course, even now, many conclusions about quantum mechanics are still in heated debate!

How many electrons are there, how many electrons are there in total on the earth?

In the time of the discoverer Thomson, he knew that the mass of electrons was very small. He believed that the mass of electrons was only a few thousandths of that of atoms! The mass of electrons is about 9.109 × 10^? 31kg, and the mass of protons is 1.672621637 × 10^-27 kg, the actual electron mass is 1/1836 times that of a proton. Thomson’s estimate is still very accurate.

In the nucleus, in addition to electrons and protons, there is also a kind of neutron, which is so much heavier than protons, which is 1.674927471×10^?27 kg. The three constitute matter, and matter constitutes the entire earth. According toThe proportion of protons and neutrons in most of the elements we can calculate the proportion of electrons, and then calculate the mass ratio of electrons in the entire earth!

Proportion of element abundance in the crust

Everyone is familiar with the ranking of the abundance of elements in the earth’s crust as oxygen 46.60%, silicon 27.72%, aluminum 8.13%, iron 5.00%! But this is not the data we want, because this is justIn the crust, the element ratio of the entire earth is not like this. The core of the earth is almost all iron and nickel. The overall ratio is: iron 32.1%, oxygen 30.1%, silicon 15.1%, magnesium 13.9%, and sulfur2.9%, nickel 1.8%, calcium 1.5 and aluminum 1.4%; the remaining 1.2% are other trace elements!

In the proportion of these elements, protons account for about 49% of the total mass, neutrons account for 51%, the total mass of the earth is about 5.97×10^24 kg, then 49% is 2.93×10^24 kg, Calculated by 1/1836, there are a total of 1.6×10^21 kilograms of electrons! About 1.5 times the mass of Ceres 9.43±0.07*10?? kg! Isn’t it scary?

How much energy do these electrons have?

There are two kinds of energy for electrons. The way to completely convert mass into energy in the mass-energy equation. The other is the work done by electrons moving in the potential difference. Of course, we are curious about the latter. If all these electrons are movedHow much work is done when the potential difference is 1V?

1eV=1.602x10^-19 J

The number of electrons is: 1.75×10^51, so the total work done is 2.8×10^32J

The gravitational binding energy of the earth is about: 2.45X10^32J, which can just blow the earth back to grandma's house, which looks pretty good!

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