What is the "fuel" of the sun and how is it composed?

2020-09-01 | Science on the planet Original |

In our impression, the sun looks like a "fireball", but from the earth, the sun is like a smooth ball of light. Before Galileo discovered sunspots, astronomers thought it was a perfect sphere.Later, through research, we discovered that the sun is very similar to the planets of our solar system.

The structure and composition of the sun

If you disassemble the sun, you will find that the sun is composed of 74% hydrogen and 24% helium, as well as 1% oxygen and 1% iron, nickel, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, magnesium, carbon, neon,Calcium and chromium, etc. The sun is a plasma, the fourth state, a fireball of high temperature and high pressure.

The sun is a plasma fireball with a radius of about 700,000 km. From the center, it is mainly divided into the core area, radiation area, troposphere, photosphere, chromosphere, and corona.

The core area is the center of the sun, the temperature and pressure are very high, fusion can occur, the core of the sun extends from the center to about 0.2 solar radius;

The temperature and density of the material in the radiant zone are high enough that the thermal radiation can pass through the sun and transfer the heat from the core outwards. The radiant layer of the sun is about 0.7 solar radius;

The convective movement of the troposphere is very strong, moving the hot matter inside the sun outwards, and the cold matter sinking back, transmitting energy to the outside, the thickness of the troposphere is about 100,000 km;

Above the troposphere is the atmosphere, which is a thin layer of opaque gas, about 500km thick, which separates the sun from the inside and the outside;

The photosphere is the layer of the sun that we usually see on the earth, and the surface temperature of the sun is about 6000K, which burst out from this place;

The corona is the outermost layer of the solar atmosphere, with a thickness of several million kilometers or more. The corona can be artificially divided into three layers: inner, middle and outer. The sun is like an onion and we need to peel it layer by layer.

How does the sun burn

We all know that combustion is a chemical reaction, but the burning of the sun is not a chemical reaction, but a physical reaction-nuclear fusion. When it comes to nuclear fusion, we all think of the most powerful hydrogen bomb, so the sun burns as a "hydrogen bomb explosion"Is it caused? In fact, we all know that the internal temperature and pressure of the sun are high enough, and the sun has the most hydrogen, and the sun’s interior will become helium through hydrogen nuclear fusion reaction. This process will release huge heat, so the entire sunIt burns into a "fireball", and the temperature inside the sun is 15 million degrees Celsius, and the surface temperature is 6000 degrees Celsius, so the sun will continuously radiate light and heat outward.

The fuel of the sun

The fuel of the sun is hydrogen atoms, and 74% of the chemical elements that make up the sun come from hydrogen. Because the sun’s light and heat come from the interior of the sun, the temperature and pressure there are very high, the temperature is as high as 15 million degrees Celsius, and the pressureUp to 300 billion atmospheric pressures of the earth. Under the extreme high temperature and high pressure environment, four hydrogen atoms can fuse into one helium atom and release energy.

So hydrogen nuclear fusion does not require oxygen, which means that the sun’s fuel can be burned without oxygen. The sun burns 4.26 million tons of hydrogen atoms per second. According to Einstein’s mass-energy equation E=mc^2, weIt can be calculated that the power of the sun is 3.85×10^26 watts, and the conversion is 9.19×10^10 tons of TNT per second.

The sun will no longer burn someday...

When the sun finishes the fusion of hydrogen, then the fusion of helium, and then the fusion of lithium, as the element table progresses level by level, until the carbon element, the temperature and pressure inside the sun will notAbility to carry out carbon fusion again, at this time the nuclear fusion inside the sun also ceases. At this time, the sun becomes a red giant star, and then it will slowly extinguish, and finally only a white dwarf star will remain inside..


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