Why was the name of the revolutionary old district changed?

2020-11-11 | Earth Knowledge Bureau Original |

The flag of the United States of America has a total of 50 stars in the upper left corner, representing the 50 states of the United States, and the 13 stripes symbolize the 13 colonies when the United States was first established.

The American flag has also evolved gradually

Only 13 stars in the upper left corner at the earliest ▼

Many people think that Hawaii is the smallest of these states, but in fact, the smallest state in the United States, its name is Rhode Island. Although this state is small in size, it has extraordinary significance to the United States.The American roots are "white" in the old revolutionary base of Miaozheng, and the 13 bars on the national flag have its share.

Thirteen Colonies on the East Coast of the United States

Rhode Island is the smallest one among them▼

A few days ago, it had another identity, namely the state with the longest name in the United States-Rhode Island and Providence Plantation State also translated as "Manor" or "Large Farm".

However, this name has become history today, and now this state is really only called "Rhode Island State". Why do you want to change the name?

First of all, Rhode Island is not an island, so start the feature film▼

Anti-colonial pioneer

In 1636, the Protestant Roger Williams was regarded as a thorn in the eyes of the British authorities due to his beliefs. The authorities convicted and expelled the colonial church and the government for collaborating with the government.

Rhode Island is between Massachusetts and Connecticut

At the time, it was still an Indian land▼

He didn’t land, he fled to the vicinity of Narragansett Bay in desperation. This is the place where Narragansetts a branch of Native Americans lived. The chiefs here adopted a series ofThe colonial policy is quite disgusting. But he is not completely hostile to whites, especially whites who advocate fair trade with the natives.

The Narragansett Indians give charcoal in the snow

Picture: shutter@Everett Collection▼

Roger makes sense instead of becoming an ally.

The enlightened chief welcomes Roger, who has sought refuge here, and sells him a piece of land here. Roger named the newly purchased land "Providence" Providence, meaning God blessing.Due to Roger’s own religious beliefs, this place later became a popular place for religious freedom.

Roger Williams is indeed white and Indian

Important communication channel between

It can be said to be an Indian master

Picture: shutter@Everett Collection▼

In 1638, with the support of Roger, some white Protestants who were persecuted by the British authorities so far purchased Acquadeneque Island from the local tribe. However, the name of the island during the colonial period was not its name.Real name, but called "Rhode Island".

The first Baptist church in the United States is in Rhode Island

Picture: Wikipedia▼

As for the origin of the name of Rhode Island, there are different opinions. It is generally believed that there are two historical events that have an impact on it.

First, the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano noticed in 1524 that there was a small island near Narragansett Bay, because its shape is similar to the island of Rhodes on the coast of the Aegean Sea, which is a metaphorIt is the “Rhodes of the Americas.” However, subsequent European explorers were not sure whether this island was what Verrazano said, but most of the colonists who settled here believed that this place was the “Rhodes of the Americas”.Island".

Providence Verrazano Memorial Stone

Photo: ARK NEYMAN / Shutterstock▼

The second is that the Dutch explorer Adrian Brock passed by the island in the 1610s. He described it as an "island with a red appearance" when he chatted with others during a trip in 1625.It is caused by leaves or the red clay on the coast. In that era, the Dutch word for red was Rodlich, the original Dutch word for "red island", which gradually evolved into Rhode Island in the later period.

Map of the North American coast drawn by Brock

You can find the location of Rhode Island in the picture

The Dutch still like this land very much▼

The historical reasons are intricate, and there may be interfering connections between various factors, but the name of Rhode Island has been settled. According to the earliest historical records that can be traced back, Roger used the name of Rhode Island in 1637The island. A few years later, the name was officially used on the island, and the name was officially used in legal documents.

Rhode Island is a large area in a geographical sense. The Protestants who came here first chose Portsmouth as a settlement. Later, due to various reasons, the southern part of the island also formed an independent named NewportSettlement.

The Portsmouth Contract signed in 1638

It is the first document in American history to cut off political and religious ties with the United Kingdom

Picture: Wikipedia@John McDaid▼

Newport’s geographical location is very important. The Newport Bridge here can connect the American continent.

Newport Bridge

Picture: wikipedia▼

Another Puritan-Samuel Gordon also bought Shawomet's land from a local tribe in 1642. As the Puritan power continued to expand, their relationship with the British authorities became increasingly tense.

Massachusetts soldiers from the United States attacked Shawomet in 1643

Picture: Scribner / wikipedia▼

So after two years, these parties united together to establish an independent "Rhode Island and Providence Ranch Colony", and from this, the Parliament and its "leaders" were formed. In order to resist the surrounding coloniesThreatening, Roger had to ask King Charles I of England to grant Providence the legal status as a British colony.

The legislature here passed a bill in 1652 that allowed slaves to obtain partial freedoms. This bill was the most advanced in North American colonies, but it was never implemented. The Rhode Island colony continued to participate heavily in the slave trade since then.

The United States where ancestors and white people came together

As a result, it takes several generations to start enjoying limited freedom

Picture: Everett Collection / shutterstock▼

Old Revolutionary District

In 1686, James II tried to strengthen the royal centralization of the autonomous colonies of British North America and merged the colonies into the Dominion of New England. However, after the Glorious Revolution, according to relevant laws, the Rhode Island colony regained its independence. ThisIt also made its independence and rebellion played an important role in the subsequent American Revolution.

The colony chief appointed by the British king-Edmund Andros

Picture: wikipedia▼

At around 2 a.m. on June 10, 1772, a group of virtuous residents of Providence attacked and blew up a British naval ship stranded on Rhode Island in order to counter the controversial "Navigation Act""This is another landmark event of the independence of the North American colonies after the Boston Tea Incident, and it has also increased the tension between the colonies and the British authorities.

The "Gaspe Incident" is one of the fuse of the American Revolution

Picture: Arnold Greene / wikipedia▼

On May 4, 1776 before the United States was formally established, Rhode Island became the first area among the 13 British colonies to give up loyalty to the British king.

Faced with such a "great and unruly" behavior, the United Kingdom launched its army to reoccupy Newport in December of that year. However, it didn't take long for the United States and France to drive it out of Rhode Island, and the two sides fell into a tug of war. In the same period, the US militaryThe first African-American military unit, the First Army of Rhode Island, was established, headquartered in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, and formally joined the war on August 29, 1778.

In October of the following year, the British finally gave up their offensive on Rhode Island and withdrew the relevant troops back to New York. These troops were later defeated by the American and French forces in the famous Battle of Yorktown.

In 1778, the French army was near Narragansett Bay

This is also the first military alliance between the United States and France

Picture: Wikipedia▼

However, this colony that was the first to openly challenge the British King was not a meek person in the new United States. In 1787, Rhode Island boycotted the constitutional convention held in Washington, and did not sign and approve the "U.S. Constitution "1787".

However, the tiny Rhode Island is still unable to twist the other 12 states. Under the threat of tariff penalties imposed by other states, it finally passed the "U.S. Constitution". However, Rhode Island also has its own requirements. It can be passed, butIt must be ensured that the Bill of Rights becomes part of the Constitution.

The arm can’t twist the thigh, the constitution should be signed or signed

Picture: Wikipedia▼

This may reflect the true pursuit of freedom and equality in this state.

During the subsequent American Civil War, its performance was also very dazzling, and it was the first state to respond to President Lincoln's request for "King King". During the war, it provided 25,236 soldiers to the Northern Army, of which 1,685 died.

In 1861, the first infantry of Rhode Island left Providence to go to the front line

Picture: Wikipedia▼

At the same time during the Civil War, Rhode Island and other northern states used their own industrial systems to support the warfare capabilities of the North, and even the U.S. Naval Academy temporarily moved to Rhode Island during the war.

"Civil War Memorial" located in the northern part of Providence, Rhode Island

Photo: Kenneth C. Zirkel / Wikipedia▼

The battle was fought hard, and the implementation of free decisions was unambiguous. The year after the end of the Civil War, Rhode Island abolished the state's segregation policy in public schools.

Renamed for the sake of black people!

Although the name of Rhode Island has "island", most of Rhode Island is located in the American continent, which is composed of Providence, Portsmouth, Newport, Warwick later merged into A state formed by the merger of four colonial settlements. Today, although the official name of Aquid Neck Island is designated as Rhode Island, the locals generally still use the old name Aquid in order to distinguish it from Rhode Island.Neck Island came to be called the island.

This is the largest island in Rhode Island

Next to Narragansett Bay▼

In any case, the name change of Rhode Island has been around for a long time. The focus of the controversy is "plantation"-a term that easily reminds Africans of the tragic fate of their ancestors.

That period was regarded as the period when commodities were traded back and forth

Picture: wikipedia▼

The origin of the "plantation" is quite intriguing. This is about the relationship between the first island owner Roger and the British authorities.

Roger bought the land from the chief, and the King of England did not approve the transaction. However, due to the threat of Boston and the Plymouth colonies in 1643, Roger had to ask King Charles I of England to grant ProvidentonThe legal status of the colony of Sri Lanka and its adjacent areas.

Land Sale Contract signed by Chief Providence in 1636

Picture: Wikipedia▼

At that time, he used the name "Providence Plantation" in the petition. After obtaining the approval of the British King, this long name became part of the full name of the colony. Independence in the United StatesAfter the war, the official name of NSW included "Rhode Island" and "Providence Plantation".

In the early days of its birth, the word "plantation" was just a term that objectively described the production site, and its attributes were neutral, so the Americans and Rhode Islanders did not take it seriously. But it was precisely after the Civil WarSince it has become a consensus that slavery is politically incorrect, the term "plantation" has also taken on a negative color.

U.S. cotton plantation before the Civil War

Black people can only be regarded as tool people

Picture: Wikipedia▼

Developing to this day, the term "plantation" has become a completely "incorrect" term.

The state legislature voted on June 25, 2009, and held a referendum to decide whether to delete "Plantation with Providence" from the official name although this full name is not very important in daily lifeUsed.

After all, the full name is too long

Picture: Joseph Sohm / shutterstock▼

The two parties immediately fell into a controversy: the supporters claimed that the word symbolized the painful history of people in many states being denied the right to vote, and the manifestation of the proliferation of slavery in the United States during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Such pain should not be retained;Proponents who retain the name believe that plantation is just an old term for colonies and has nothing to do with slavery.

Both parties are justified, it still has to be resolved by voting. The referendum was held on November 2, 2010, and the opponents retained the entire original name by an overwhelming advantage 78%.

However, as the US population structure continues to evolve, the tiny Rhode Island cannot be left out. This is the second most densely populated state in the United States after New Jersey. In recent years, the proportion of ethnic minorities has continued to expand, especiallyAfrican immigrants including Cape Verdean, Liberian, Nigerian, Ghanaian have formed important and growing communities in Rhode Island.

Rhode Island ethnic demographic changes

Except for whites, other ethnic groups are gradually increasing

Picture: wikipedia▼

Counties with a relatively high proportion of African Americans and Latinos in the United States▼

The word "plantation" becomes more and more obtrusive.

On June 18 this year, State Senator Harold Metters once again initiated a motion to call for a new round of referendum within the state to delete "Plantation with Providence" in the name of the state.

Ten years have passed, old things are brought up again

Picture: http://www.golocalprov.com/▼

In the protest against the murder of black George Floyd and the call for a systematic solution to national racism, the bill was passed unanimously. Metters said: "In the historical context of Rhode Island, regardless of the'plantation'What is the meaning of the term, when considering our country’s tragedy and racist history, it has terrible meaning.”

Catch up with the wave of anti-racism

Picture: Julian Leshay / shutterstock▼

On the 22nd of the same month, the governor issued an executive order requesting the removal of "Plantation with Providence" from a series of official documents and state websites. At the same time, the supporting legislation for the resolution was issued in the state on July 16.The House of Representatives voted and passed 69 to 1.

During the recent U.S. general election, on November 6, the result of the referendum on the name change was also officially passed with 52.8% of the votes. The names of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation State became history.

Delete words that some people think are "offensive"

But that period of slave history will still exist forever

Picture: http://www.browndailyherald.com/▼

History seems to be a joke with people.

The word "Rhode Island", born of European colonists, finally stayed in the name, and the neutral place name "Providence" named by Roger Williams, the earliest abolitionist pioneer in North America"Plantation" has been thrown into the garbage dump of history.

The statue of the pioneer is still standing

Picture: Sean Pavone/shutterstock▼

This paradoxical scene may be just one of the tens of millions of chaos in contemporary America, which is not very important.

Everyone who strives to change his destiny will eventually become the torrent of the times▼

Reference material:

1.http://newyork.mofcom.gov.cn/article/ddgk/rigk/201905/20190502863000.shtml

2.http://share.america.gov/zh-hans/rhodeisland/

3.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhode_Island

4.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_of_Rhode_Island_and_Providence_Plantations

5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Providence_Plantations

6.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquidneck_Island

7.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Williams

8.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhode_Island_in_the_American_Civil_War

9.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Rhode_Island

10.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canonicus

11.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspee_Affair

12.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_Philip%27s_War

13.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Randall_Holden#Shawomet

*The content of this article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of the Earth Knowledge Bureau

Cover image: Matteo Roma / Shutterstock

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