What is the "Ming Dynasty Black Army"?

2020-11-16 | Earth Knowledge Bureau Original |

The Wanli Korean War 1592-1598 was the longest, largest, and fiercest battle among the "Three Great Expeditions in Wanli". "Ming History" commented: "Since the Japanese rebellion in North Korea for seven years, dozens of teachers were lost.Ten thousand, lavish millions...It's very important that Guan Bai Toyotomi Hideyoshi died and disaster began".

If Daming failed to protect North Korea at that time

It can only gain peace for a while, and even accelerate its own demise afterwards

base map: shutterstock▼

In order to preserve the barriers and consolidate the national defense, the Ming Dynasty did not hesitate to raise the world's elite troops and conquer the east in the face of internal and external troubles. At the peak of the use of troops, they came from Jiliao, Xuanda, Zhejiang, Liangguang, Sichuan and even the borders of YunguiArmy gathered on the Korean Peninsula.

Really a nationwide aid, to resist Japan and aid Korea▼

Due to the differences in military status, organization, and types of troops, as well as the population movement brought about by international exchanges under the tributary system, the Ming Army Aid North Korea is not only a multi-ethnic force, but also a transnational force, under the command of individual generals.There are even some magical faces with strange skin tones and races.

On the order of Emperor Daming to save North Korea

Picture: shutter@Faiz Zaki▼

Different Faces

In the spring of the 26th year of Wanli 1598, the Chinese and North Korean coalition forces gathered in Gyeongsangdo and Jeollado in the southern part of the peninsula to prepare a decisive battle against Japanese pirates.

In late May, King Lee of Korea visited the Ming army camp near Seoul and exchanged greetings with the infantry guerrilla Peng Xingu, who had just entered the war in North Korea. When Peng Xingu came to him, he called out his "unfavorable soldiers""Invite the king to review.

This is the second Japanese invasion the second Wanli Korean War

The depth of the Japanese army is no longer comparable to the first time, but it is still powerful ▼

According to Peng’s description, the soldiers came from “the extreme south of Huguang, and the people of the waves, crossing the three seas, and arriving at Huguang” are 150,000 miles away from North Korea. The reason why they are called “different faces” isBecause the image of this group of foreign soldiers is very different from that of the Chinese people: one is black yellow pupils are painted, all black; the other is curly hair beard and hair are curly and curly like black wool, and the top is bald;Pan head all day long a yellow silk, knotted like a peach on the head.

In addition to their peculiar appearance, these soldiers have natural magic skills and are proficient in all kinds of hot and cold weapons. They can dive under the sea for a few days and sink the enemy ship with their bare hands. Li Yun quickly offered compliments and praised the mighty force of the heavenly soldiers, and the Japanese pirates are just around the corner..

Regardless of whether they are from east or west of Malacca

It’s really the spirit of internationalism to come so far to resist Japan and aid Korea ▼

Unfortunately, Peng Guerrilla's poor martial arts luck also affected this black corps that crossed thousands of miles of waves to fight in a foreign country.

October 1st, Mingjun Middle Road Group where Peng Xingu was located launched a general offensive against Sizhou City where Shimazu Yoshihiro was guarded. At this time Toyotomi Hideyoshi had died of illness. This was the last battle planned by the Ming army.

In this battle, Peng Xingu led his troops to act as the vanguard and fired artillery to destroy the city gates and many battlements. Seeing that it was approaching the city, a cannon in the Ming Army’s artillery camp suddenly exploded, unfortunately detonating the surrounding explosives.The Ming army's position instantly turned into a raging and bloody Shura field. The Japanese army took advantage of the momentum and rushed out of the small door to counterattack.

At that time, Daming's artillery technology was still relatively rudimentary

Cannon bombing is inevitable

But the ammunition depot was blown up at a critical moment, it is really bad luck

Picture: wikipedia▼

The stunned Ming army collapsed across the board. Peng Xingu was fortunate to be spared, but all three thousand soldiers were slaughtered. The black army had not had time to perform its magical skills because of the accident of the Ming army.'S fiasco died prematurely in a strange battlefield.

Some popular historical readings infer from the description of "face paint" that the black army under the city of Sizhou came from the African continent and portrayed the battle of Sizhou as the first time an African soldier fought in North Korea. However, there is no clear record in Chinese and foreign historical materials.The origin of these black warriors.

The results of the battle may have obscured my face

But please don't doubt my existence

Picture: wikimedia@AMISOM Public Information▼

In fact, as early as five years ago, at the end of the "Japanese Rebellion", there were already black soldiers in the Ming Army who aided the DPRK. The commander in charge of them was the famous general Liu Ting. In the eyes of the DPRK recorder, Liu Ting had blacks under his account.Bing’s image characteristics are completely a copy of Peng Xingu’s subordinates. They are all "black as a ghost, capable of sneaking under the sea", but they also pointed out that "it grows Nanfan".

So, why are there blacks serving in the Ming army, and where do they come from?

Kunlun and Heifan

From the point of view, the "Huguang Pole South" where the "Wave Country" is located is actually the "Kunlun" in the ancient Chinese cognition. "Old Tang Book" contains: "From the south of Linyi, with curly hair and black body,Known as Kunlun." Lin Yi is the predecessor of Champa. In other words, "Kunlun" may not necessarily come from Africa, but may also come from Southeast Asia.

Unlike many people’s intuition, "Kunlun" does not necessarily come from Africa▼

Anthropological research shows that in prehistoric times, blacks were also distributed in Southeast Asia and a part of East Asia. Even the ancient residents of the Japanese archipelago, Ezo people, also have black genes. Today, on the islands south of the Malay Peninsula,There are still a small number of blacks living in the diaspora. These blacks are called Negritos, also known as dwarf blacks. The theory of racial classification has been questioned in contemporary times, but the appearance of dwarf blacks is very consistent with the "curly hair and black body" in ancient Chinese books.", the description of "dwarf short man".

It is said that they migrated here from the northern coast of the Indian Ocean

Even crossing from the west coast of the Indian Ocean to Southeast Asia

Although the early navigation technology was poor, this statement is indeed quite reasonable

Philippines-Negro Island-local indigenous people

Picture: wikipedia@Frederic H.Sawyer▼

By the age of written records, Southeast Asia had long been conquered by yellow-skinned mainlanders. After thousands of years of integration and dilution, the blacks in this region have gradually become marginalized, and it is unlikely that "the whole country is black"., The ancient Chinese labelled the natives of Southeast Asia as blacks, it should be judged based on their skin color, not to say that these fighters are real blacks.

Nowadays, the Negritos are quite marginalized

For example, distributed in an isolated place like the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

Discrimination and poverty make it difficult

Picture: wikipedia▼

In fact, the exchanges between Southeast Asian blacks and China have a long history. After the Tang Dynasty, they entered the court and the daily life of the people through the channels of tribute, trade, and capture and capture. They served as official and private servants and became the main source of the "Kunlun slaves" commonly known by the Tang people..

The other type of "Kunlun slaves" came from the slave trade of Arab big food merchants. Trade between the big food countries and Datang was very frequent, and Arab human traffickers captured and abducted local blacks from eastern Africa to become slaves in the big food countries, Part of which was resold to China via land in the Western Regions or Southern Sea, and the profit doubled.

The Arabs have been engaged in the slave trade for a long time

If the Arabs develop a new continent

Presumably the black slave trade will also be copied directly ▼

Yemen slave market in the 13th century

Picture: wikipedia▼

In addition to being bought as writer slaves and serfs by wealthy merchants, some skilled blacks can also get involved in technical jobs such as translation, sailor, and actor. The Kunlun Nuge in "The Twelve Hours of Chang'an", although not introducedHe was born, but the actor is tall and he is of black African descent.

In the Ming Dynasty, the great patriarch Zhu Yuanzhang ordered to go out of Xinjiang at the beginning of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and spread education in the South China Sea countries. The nearest ones are Annan, Champa, and Chenla, the distant ones are Siam, Mansa, Ceylon, and even the Red Sea coast.The Kingdom of Heaven Mecca has sent envoys to the tribute to the celestial dynasty. There are many tributes from various countries, and black slaves are also listed as tributes from time to time, from Java, Mantra Malacca, Boni Brunei, etc.Dedicated together.

When the Chinese explored west

Arab business groups and Islam are also expanding eastward Bangladesh, Aceh

It is not surprising that the slave trade will be extended to the East Asian waters from this ▼

However, the Emperor Ming and the court did not accept blacks to pay tribute to a high degree, or the black slaves themselves are valuable human resources in various countries, and the number of blacks imported into China as tribute is not many. Since the founding father Zhu Di moved to Beijing,, The record of blacks paying tribute is rarely seen in historical records.

The next wave of large-scale black input will have to wait until the Jiajing Dynasty in the middle and late Ming Dynasty.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the tentacles of the Portuguese overseas expansion reached Goa and Malacca in the Indian Ocean, and regarded China as a promising emerging market. After trying to go to Beijing but was rejected by the Ming court, the Portuguese armed caravanGo straight to the coasts of Fujian and Zhejiang to develop smuggling trade. The internal circular international order under the tributary system dominated by the Ming Dynasty is beginning to be threatened.

At this time, the leader of global trade is quietly becoming a European country

And European countries are also engaged in the slave trade

Spain and Portugal have long been slave trade veterans on the coast of Africa▼

From this also developed another interpretation of "wave country"-"wave country" is the transliteration of Portugal. Of course, the black people in the wave country are not the native people of Portugal, but the slaves and trades of Portuguese colonists, Which is the "Folangji Black Fan" in Mingren's records.

Black history of globalization

Before the opening of the new shipping route, European and Arab human traffickers ran the slave trade on the east and west sides of the African continent. The Atlantic triangle trade as we know it was staged in the Indian Ocean 300 years ago.

When the Portuguese finally broke the Muslim world's blockade of East-West trade and traffic, they immediately brought their rich experience in slavery and slave trade on the west coast of Africa to Asia. These black slaves, together with the local leader party in Southeast Asia, becameThe small country Portugal maintains important human resources in its overseas territories.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Portuguese map of Asia can be said to be very accurate, and the Portuguese exploration of Asia is only less than two hundred years

Synchronous with this process, "Folang Jiheifan" has also entered the field of vision of the Chinese in large numbers.

In the twenty-seventh year of Jiajing 1548, Zhejiang governor Zhu Wan commanded the Ming army to sweep the Portuguese stronghold Shuangyu Port in Ningbo, killing hundreds of thieves, and two of the prisoners were from the "Mangalla" and"Hei Fan" from "Hamei and Bear Country" and a "Ultra Hei Fan" from "Kafuri Country".

According to scholars, "Mangala" and "Hameishou" are Malacca and Hormuz respectively, while "Cafraria" is derived from the Portuguese "Cafraria", which is a general term for the black areas of East Africa. Zhu WanTo describe the Kafuri people as "extremely black", obviously, they also noticed that African blacks have darker skin. In the subsequent anti-smuggling and anti-smuggling operations along the coast of Fujian and Zhejiang, the "face-like" black fan was almost a Franco machine captured by the Ming army.Standard on the bargain ship.

After the Portuguese seized Macau, Macau quickly became a global trade transit point for Portugal, the upstart Spain, and the Netherlands. People of different races and skin colors lived together here. Due to the steady demand from the Eastern market, from Mozambique to India and MacauThe slave trade even lasted until the middle of the Qing Dynasty.

Macao in 1598 is just a very small settlement

But due to the special status, you can engage in various trades, overt or covert

This special status has also made it prosperous for hundreds of years

Picture: wikipedia▼

In the records of European merchants at the time, Western merchants in Macau had armed black slaves at home, and black houses carried sedan chairs when they went out. One sedan chair is equipped with five sedan chairmen, four people carry sedan chair, and one person holds parasol.The Chinese giants are also keen to "buy more blacks to protect their households."

Macao operated by the Portuguese did not have a standing military force at the beginning, so they continued their tradition of training and arming blacks. Civil and military officials in Guangdong and Fujian also noticed that the blacks who served in the army were "very loyal" and "faced the enemy."Not afraid of death", and because of the Portuguese training, black soldiers are particularly good at manipulating and even casting firearms. Therefore, the generals of the Ariake army bought some of the black soldiers through high-priced redemption, and used them to attack the city.

In the chaotic times of the late Ming Dynasty, the official military system of the imperial court-the military household system existed in name only, and powerful generals often recruited private soldiers through the collection of prisoners or through fellow villagers and kinship as their core forces. The fierce general Liu Wei mentioned aboveHe became famous for incorporating "foreign antagonists" as his family. His subordinates even consisted of foreign legions composed of Siamese, Tianzhu people and even "Jiangwa". The black soldiers he brought to North Korea were not necessarily from Macau.But it is also the result of the movement of blacks in East Asia since Jiajing.

The Wanli Korean War emptied the finances of the Ming Dynasty and indirectly contributed to the downfall of the Ming Dynasty. But after Jiangshan changed hands, there were still black soldiers fighting for the Zhu family's remnants. July 4th of Shunzhi 1647, NanmingOne of the "three loyalties", Chen Zizhuang, a native of Panyu, Guangdong, organized the rebels to counterattack Guangzhou. This piecemeal army is mostly composed of "sniffs and ghosts".

"Pinghu" are fishermen at sea, and "Fangui" are black slaves or private soldiers kept by Guangdong officials and gentry. The uprising was immediately extinguished, and the final outcome of these black fighters is unknown.

I don’t know where I am, who I’m fighting for, and I don’t know where I died. Perhaps this is the fate that these strangers cannot escape.

References:

1 Zheng Jiexi: Foreign soldiers in the Ming army during the Wanli Korean War

2 Liao Dake: Textual Research on the Birthplace of "Folangji Black Fan" in Ming Dynasty

3Pang Naiming: Inheritance and Reshaping: Historical Construction of Black Images between Ming and Qing Dynasties

4 Li Jiping: A Study of Kunlun Slaves in Tang Dynasty

5 Ming. Huang Shengzeng: A Note on the Records of Western Tributaries

6 Ming. Cai Ruxian: Dongyi Illustrated

7 Qing. Xu Xi: The Biography of Xiao Xian

*The content of this article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of the Earth Knowledge Bureau

Cover image: shutter@Faiz Zaki

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