Kashmir, what's new?

2020-11-19 | Earth Knowledge Bureau Original |

Kashmir, a term that represents luxury cashmere products in the 19th century, division and conflict in the 20th century, and territorial disputes that are difficult to reconcile in the 21st century, always arouses people's endless thinking.

This dispute has continued since the partition of India and Pakistan until now

Still can't see any real solution

Photo: Yogesh Raut/shutterstock▼

For the Chinese, the term Kashmir also means a fact that is easily overlooked-Xinjiang and Tibet are close to China, and the peace and stability of the region is of great significance to China.

Now the national strength of the country concerned has risen, the national sentiment has swelled, and actions on disputed territories have become increasingly radicalized. As the other party, Pakistan is not to be outdone, trying to resolve the outstanding disputed territorial issues, and the regional situation is gradually heating up.

India and Pakistan obviously want to control the entire Kashmir▼

A policy that will inevitably cause controversy is put into practice, and there must be benefits considerations that the benefits outweigh the risks. The institutionalization of Kashmir will affect regional stability, national defense security, governance capabilities, and international cooperation, which is of vital importance to Pakistan.

Picture: shutter@Dr. Ashhad Ali Khan Suri▼

historical appendix

Kashmir is located at the junction of the western side of the Himalayas and the South Asian subcontinent. The overall elevation is more than 4000 meters. Among them, there are 8 peaks over 7500 meters. The tall mountains contain huge reserves of glaciers, making it an Indian andWater tower in Pakistan.

Pamirs and the high mountains connected to it

Formed a huge central water tower

Many rivers in South and Central Asia originate in this region

base map: NASA▼

Glacier meltwater formed the upper Indus, Jehlum and Chenab rivers, and the valleys of these rivers constitute the main part of Kashmir that is relatively suitable for human habitation.

Most of the rivers of Kashmir eventually merge into the Indus

And India and Pakistan's competition for Kashmir

It also continues to the competition for the Indus River and its water resources▼

The Indus Valley originates in the northeast and runs across the north, nourishing the Ladakh region and Baltistan. The Jhelum River passes through the Indian-controlled Kashmir valley. The Chinab River passes through India-controlled Jammu, Here is the lowest altitude and the most precipitation in Kashmir, the most suitable area for human survival.

Kashmir Valley is the largest plain in this region

Naturally also the most livable area Controlled by India

But due to the relatively closed terrain, the smog is also very serious

base map: NASA▼

Although Kashmir has high mountains and deep valleys and complex terrain, it is a veritable crossroad. The Pakistan-controlled part is roughly separated from China by the Karakoram Mountains, the north is connected with the strategic location of Afghanistan, the Wakhan Corridor, and the west is adjacent to Pakistan.Porpakhtunkhwa Province and Punjab Province, in the south, and India’s Himachal Pradesh and Punjab are connected in the south, and are strategically located in a strategic position extending in all directions.

In terms of location, it is indeed a battleground for military strategists

The control of a strong country is a huge advantage, but the control of a weak country will lead to military disasters▼

Although these mountains are huge obstacles, a few river valleys and passes connect several passages to ensure basic traffic to the surrounding area.

Although these routes were extremely difficult and dangerous in ancient times, they could not resist merchants who circulated goods and monks who spread doctrine. They maintained trade and cultural exchanges among civilizations, and greatly promoted Buddhism, Hinduism, and Tibetan traditions.The spread of Buddhism and Islam.

Local Tibetan Buddhist architecture

Tell posterity about the traditional relationship between Tibet and China

Picture: Rudra Narayan Mitra/shutterstock▼

Compared with a large area of ​​desolate no-man’s land, a few river valleys and a few key communication lines are the essence of Kashmir. As a battleground for military strategists with limited local resources, the ability of foreign rulers to govern is very demanding.Under huge cost pressures, greater autonomy can often be obtained here.

At that time, the British colonists relied on supporting the local native states and included them in British India.

Even if the Mughal and other native Indian dynasties

Only indirectly control this remote area

The same is true for the British, relying on local agents to rule

Kashmir Brahman in the 19th century, photo: wikipedia▼

At the same time, Kashmir is not monolithic internally due to its geographic characteristics, and the specific scope is also constantly changing due to the expansion of local territories and the transaction of the sovereign state.

This has become a headache during the partition of India and Pakistan. The local political power is highly divided. Muslims want to join Pakistan here, and Hindus want to join India. The local rulers of the Tubang simply cannot make a reasonable conclusion.decision.

And people of different faiths also live together

If it is forced to divide, it means becoming a minority or forced to move

Picture: wikipedia▼

The geographical, ethnic, and ideological divisions still led to the pro-Indian riots, which eventually became the fuse of the first India-Pakistan war under the background of the intensification of conflicts between India and Pakistan.

Leh, Indian soldier who died in the 1947 war

Picture: Yogesh Raut/shutterstock▼

In the end, the powerful India actually controls three-fifths of the territory and most of the population in southeastern Kashmir. However, the two nuclear-armed nations of India and Pakistan regard Kashmir as their own territory and are highly sensitive to the other's actions in Kashmir, Border conflicts occurred from time to time, which aroused the attention of the international community. This conflict-filled territory finally continued to play the role of a powder keg in South Asia after the war and remained unresolved for a long time.

The two old rivals of India and Pakistan have to maintain a delicate strategic balance.

The war is over

But it does not mean that local Muslims are willing to be loyal to the Indian country

Picture: Faizan Ahmad sheikh/shutterstock▼

The current situation of paralysis

However, for the Kashmir region, this delicate balance is not necessarily a good thing.

For example, the unresolved political status of Pakistan-controlled Kashmir has caused a lot of work to be unable to start. Although it is controlled by Pakistan, it is not regarded as a province. It has no voting rights in the federal parliament and cannot affect Pakistan’s prime minister elections.The case is submitted to the Supreme Court for trial.

Obviously, Pakistan-controlled Kashmir needs an identity

The interior of Pakistan-controlled Kashmir is divided into two parts

Gilgit-Baltistan, Free Kashmir▼

Because local public opinion cannot effectively affect the federal level, Pakistani federal officials have virtually no incentive to be responsible for the interests of local people. Therefore, although people living in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir have Pakistani passports, their citizenship rights are discounted.

Pakistan flag erected in Gilgit-Baltistan

Picture: deposit / shutterstock▼

As compensation, Pakistan grants a higher degree of autonomy to the local area. Among them, the long and narrow Free Kashmir Region AJK in the south, promulgated the constitution of the region in 1974, and has its own parliament, supreme court, president and prime minister. The vast northThe Gilgit-Baltistan region, which has its own legislative assembly and a local cabinet from the assembly, has now achieved a status similar to that of Pakistan's fifth province.

Free Kashmir flag left

Gilgit-Baltistan flag right

Picture: wikipedia▼

But both are subject to various public or secret restrictions from the federal government, making it difficult for the federal government to give full power to the locals. After all, it is well known that there are differences in political views in the region, and the federal government neitherI hope that the two places will express overly positive signals to establish a province and trigger India’s intervention; I also don’t want the locals to fall into various separatist forces after being discouraged by the former plan.

Karachi students support the resistance of Kashmiris on the Indian side

The flags in hand are Pakistan and Free Kashmir

Picture: AM Syed/shutterstock▼

However, this kind of strong control but not responsible for the interests of local people will also cause local people’s dissatisfaction. In the eyes of local residents, the federal government seems to only use them as tools, in matters involving national security and authority.The incident attached great importance to them, but they deliberately or unintentionally ignored their needs in the daily economic construction and benefit distribution.

It is indeed poor, and no one cares

Picture: Katya Tsvetkova / shutterstock▼

When this deformed political design is unsatisfactory in life, the dissatisfaction of the people is even more difficult to control.

Free Kashmir has relatively good conditions, but the area is small, and most of the 4.04 million people living on it depend on agriculture. The huge Gilgit-Baltistan region is too high and only carries 1.24 million people, Economic development is slow. The economies of these two regions are not as developed as the four provinces of Pakistan. It is normal for locals to work in other places, and the problem of hiring child labor has been repeatedly prohibited.

Occasional happiness and daily poverty

Picture: pakwahab/shutterstock▼

This bad situation may even affect China's interests.

The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor is Pakistan’s most important economic cooperation project in recent years. China also attaches great importance to it and regards it as a demonstration project of the “Belt and Road”. The project aims to pass through Pakistan through railways, highways, and oil and gas pipelines, connecting Xinjiang and Xinjiang.The Arabian Sea greatly shortens the distance between the import and export of Chinese goods especially energy and protects energy security. For Pakistan, this can greatly improve traffic accessibility and promote economic development along the route.

The Karakoram Highway is a key part of the Xinjiang-Pakistan channel

And Gilgit is the key node

base map: NASA▼

Gilgit-Baltistan is the only area bordering Pakistan and Xinjiang, so China-Pakistan cooperation projects must pass through this place. The stability of the area directly affects the progress and results of the project. Therefore, maintain local stability, even ifIt is also very valuable to neighboring China.

Gate to China

Picture: A_noina/shutterstock▼

Politician's banner

Faced with the status quo that affects economic development, regional stability, the protection of local people’s rights, and international cooperation, figures in the political and legal circles in Pakistan have from time to time suggested that Pakistan should control Kashmir and establish a province. The local people have also been actively willing to become the fifth province, It can be said that it is very popular.

But due to various considerations, the Pakistani government has not really put it into practice.

Currently in the new crown, Pakistan’s inflation is setting a record, the economic situation is grim, and the people’s life is not easy. In theory, this is not a good time for strategic expansion.

Don't look at it like that next door

The greater the pressure, the more troublesome it is!

Picture: iTechGuru/shutterstock▼

But also because of the difficult world, the support rate of the ruling Pakistan Justice Movement Party PTI continues to decline, and the current president has to announce the plan to make Gilgit-Baltistan the fifth province. However, this plan lacks implementationThe steps and details are more like a government public relations rather than serious planning.

Even so, the Indian side still expressed strong dissatisfaction. The Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs claimed to "completely oppose this illegal forced occupation" operation.

It is highly doubtful whether India is qualified to accuse Pakistan in this way. As early as August 2019, India had cancelled the semi-autonomous status of Muslim-majority Jammu and Kashmir, followed by the cancellation of the high proportion of Tibetans in October.The semi-autonomous status of Ladakh puts Indian-controlled Kashmir under the central jurisdiction.

India is very tough

For this reason, Pakistan is more inclined to maintain the regional status quo

Picture: mar Fayaz Dhobi/shutterstock▼

Since then, India has not only sent additional garrisons to blockade the Kashmir Valley, but also suppressed local gatherings and placed important political figures under house arrest. To this day, India still uses methods such as disconnecting the Internet and telephone calls to combat opposition. They are well aware that there is no record without a record.The reason that happened, obstructed, intimidated, and even arrested reporters who tried to report.

Recently, the central government allowed Indian nationals to buy land in Kashmir, hoping to change the ethnic composition. I don’t know if the above behavior is considered "illegal" and "forced".


Muslim masses protest against what India did in Kashmir

Picture: Sk Hasan Ali/shutterstock▼

Faced with the fierce reaction from India, the President of Pakistan, who was not very serious, also sent a signal of dialogue, hoping to negotiate and reach national self-determination under the framework of the United Nations.

It’s just this kind of mild solution, which may not be what India wants. The religion, ethnicity, and political factions in India-controlled Kashmir are complicated. India can achieve irreversible naturalization effects by relying on political skills and violent machines. Once the nation is self-determined, I am afraidAll previous efforts will be lost.

The autonomy of various regions in Kashmir is becoming more and more questionable

The question is, when? Who will do it? Who will do it first?▼

There is still no hope of a proper solution to the Kashmir issue, and it will be a hot spot that affects the nerves of the world for some time to come.

When politicians from all sides want to gain an advantage, suppress opponents, and divert the pressure of internal problems, but do not want the situation to get out of control, the local people can only put their lives and family safety on the tightrope walking politicians with long sleeves.Up.








*The content of this article is provided by the author and does not represent the position of the Earth Knowledge Bureau

Cover: shutter@Dr. Ashhad Ali Khan Suri


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