During the Wei and Jin Dynasties, why did "Jade" change from ornamental to food?

2020-11-20 | History University Hall Original |

The story between jade and us can be said to have a long history. In ancient times, the ancients divided the beauty of jade into five virtues-benevolence, righteousness, courtesy, wisdom, and faith. At that time, people used jade to praise people everywhere., But why did jade change from an ornamental object to an edible object? This needs to be detailed from the past of jade.

Jade Course

The development process of Chinese jade culture is Shenyu-Wangyu-Minyu.

Jade was deified in ancient times when the social structure was changing, so witches with theocratic power became upper-class social figures. In order to have more power to speak, they turned the jade god into a god of things and a tool for enchanting gods. In Qu DuizhiThere is a record in Mr. Shi Wu's "Witch Interpretation": The witcher is in the world and seeks the way to the gods. People are addicted to food and drink, so witches serve the gods at sacrifice. It is their fabrication that makes jade the supremeDivine objects have also created systems belonging to jade, witches, and gods to maintain power.

And Wang Yu was formed in the establishment of a unified dynasty of slavery society-Xia Shang. With the further consolidation of the royal power, the ancient primitive religion dominated by witchcraft gradually declined and became dominated by a new type of religion ritual system.It is an important utensil used in rituals.

Minyu appeared in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties. During this period, the princes fought for hegemony and the ritual and music system collapsed. In the "Three Kingdoms·Wei Shu·Wen Di Ji", it is recorded that "the tombs of the Han clan were all excavated and even burned.In the third year of Huangchu 222, Emperor Wen of Wei, Cao Pi, in view of the prevailing wind of tomb robbery, ordered the use of jade garments for burial to prevent extravagance and tomb robbery, and implemented a thin burial system.

This is actually based on the order of the government to change the past rituals, and Wang Can’s jade adoration system changed it even more. "Three Kingdoms? Wei Shu? Wang Can Biography": "Wei State is built, Can worshipsIn. The natural resources are knowledgeable, and the questions are all right. The old rituals are abolished, and the system is created, and the charm is constant. "Under this system, jade is rapidly universal.

And the contribution made by the jade pendant system can be seen in Zhiyu's "Julysing and Suspicious Notes" in the Western Jin Dynasty: "There is no jade pendant in the end of the Han Dynasty. There is no jade pendant in the end of the Han Dynasty., Subject to Chan Ye.

Wei Jin in the social context

There were many natural disasters and man-made disasters during the Wei and Jin dynasties. In the 200 years of the Wei and Jin dynasties, there were 518 natural disasters, which means that there was one natural disaster in less than five months, and the plague was even more tragic.Middle Way: "In the past years of disease, relatives often left the disaster, Xu Xu Gan, Chen Chen Lin, Ying Ying Ju, Liu Liu Zhen, all the time passed away, the pain is evil?" LianJian'an Seven Sons died under the plague, what about ordinary people?

In addition to natural disasters, there are man-made disasters. From the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Wei and Jin dynasties, it was the most turbulent period in Chinese history. Countless people died under the smoke of the battlefield. Even Cao Cao once sighed in his poem "Xing in the Zhu"The tragic scene of "blank bones in the wild, no cock crowing".

In addition, the catastrophe of war is only one aspect, and political persecution cannot be avoided, especially political disputes. There may be "unnecessary" charges on oneself at any time. The celebrities of the Wei and Jin Dynasties are not only with the common people.They suffer from the same threats of famine and plague, and they have to endure the brutality of the ruler. In this terrible period, the subordinates, because of their speeches against those in power, either feigned to avoid the world like Ruan Ji, or were wantonly killed by the rulers.For example, Cao Cao's "great rebellion against Kong Rong should be severely punishable" and Ji Kang, one of the seven sages of the bamboo forest, became the soul of the Sima group because of his offending Sima Zhao.

In the "Study on the Culture of Eating Jade in the Wei and Jin Dynasties" in the Wei and Jin Dynasties, in the eventful autumn, "there are few celebrities and the perfect ones", literati and scholars who had read the books of sages and sages were the most sensitive group in society at that time. Although the absolute number of individual deathsThere are far fewer natural disasters and wars in Shanghai and earlier, but the psychological pressure on people is very heavy. In such a disaster and turbulent era, death terror threatens the Wei and Jin people in all directions.

The collapse of thought

In the 22nd year of Jian'an, Cao Pi wrote a letter to Wang Lang: Birth has the shape of seven feet, and the only coffin for death. It is only famous for being famous and immortal, and secondly, it is not as good as the book. The epidemic has several cases, ShiPeople fall, who can live their lives? Cao Pi, who was crowned king, is so sad about the plague, then? For the so-called celebrities of the Qingliu, who has studied poetry and books for more than ten years, only to gain the glory of scholars, butThe sufferings of life make it hard for them to do everything and suffer in life, and they also have to derive their own happiness.

At this time, "The Roar of Ruan Ji" and Dai's mother "happy donkeys" recorded in Fan Ye's "Book of Later Han Yimin Biography", and his son Dai Shuluan "usually learn to entertain Yan". Formed a unique featureWei Jin celebrities relax their forms.

In "Research on the Culture of Eating Jade in the Wei and Jin Dynasties", it is stated that when the threat of death envelops the entire society, even if the joy-seeking is relieved for a while, it still cannot comfort people's inner fears and anxiety about life, and long for the eternity of lifeIt became the first wish of the people in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. At this time, Taoism, which believed in immortals and aimed at longevity, was born with immortal thoughts, which just saved the fragile hearts of the Wei-Jin scribes who fell into the cliff.

Taoist gods thought came into being

This Taoism is not Taoism, Taoism is the thought of Lao Zhuang among the hundreds of schools of pre-Qin philosophers, or the thought of Huang Lao that was popular in the Warring States, Qin and Han Dynasties, while Taoism believes in "Tao" and "becomes immortal and attains Tao" through the practice of spiritual formReligion.

Taoism has two main factions. One is the Five Dou Mi Dao with Lao Tzu’s "Five Thousand Wen" as the classic, which teaches Dao tombs, and the other is the Taiping Dao with the Taiping Scripture as the classic, which teaches Jiao the leader of the Yellow Turban Army.

Under the rule of a feudal emperor like China, the spread of religion can only depend on the ruling class, otherwise missionary work will be difficult. Dong Zhongshu's suggestion to Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty: "Abolish a hundred schools and respect Confucianism" makes Confucianism flourish. In the Eastern Han DynastyThe war also gave Zhang Jiao a chance. In this way, the Taiping Road led by Zhang Jiao in Taoism opened the Yellow Turban Uprising in the first year of the Ling Emperor Zhongping. Everyone knows the result-the defeat in the mid-Jian'an period, the consequences are very tragic, TaipingDao was squeezed to the ground by the ruler, and was helpless, while Wudoumi Dao fled to Shu.

In the Wei and Jin dynasties, the life goals given to people by Confucianism-meritorious service, morality, and proposition, were swallowed by the shadow of death. Therefore, after the failure of the Taiping Dao in Taoism, new ones were sought in the Wei and Jin dynasties.After thinking about his own position, he introduced the Taoist thought of immortals.

The immortality of immortality in Taoist gods’ thoughts. The basic belief in attaining Taoism and becoming immortal comes from the Shanhaijing and Lao Tzu’s long-term vision. It is recorded in the "Overseas Northern Classic": "The god of Zhongshan is called the candle Yin, regarded asDay, staring at night, blowing for winter, calling for summer, no drink, no food, no rest."

The tenth chapter of "Lao Tzu" highlights the way of health preservation: "To carry the camp and hold one, can you be indifferent? Special spirit and soft, can be like a baby? Cleanse the mysterious, can be flawless? "God is naturalThe deification of power and social power, and the nature of gods, the first to say that the essence is Zhuangzi’s "Xiaoyanyou": "The mountain of Liaogushe, there are gods and people, the skin is like ice and snow, and the skin is like a virgin. Don't eat grains., Inhale the wind and drink the dew. Ride on the clouds, fly the dragon, and swim beyond the sea." The few words in these records also opened a door for the people of Wei and Jin. They lead to Taoist gods.

"Life and death have fate, everyone has their destiny" has been known for a long time, and "My fate is up to me" is the best slogan put forward by Taoism based on people's desire for life in the Wei and Jin Dynasties. It is also forImmortal thoughts better escort.

The idea of ​​Taoism is to tell the general public how to cultivate immortality. After a long period of alchemy, Taoism has never decayed from nature, and when it comes to inspiration, "Baopuzi" quotes ancient "Jade Classics".:"Whoever takes gold will live like gold, and those who take jade will live like jade." Taoists in the Wei and Jin dynasties thought that taking permanent things created by nature can evolve into immortals, so there was "eating jade" in the Wei and Jin dynasties.It’s a common practice.

Author: Cheng Yi correction / editing: Lilith

Reference material:

[1] "Jade Culture and Poetry Creation in the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties" Xiao Ting 2012

[2] "Research on the Culture of Food Jade in the Wei and Jin Dynasties" Chu Xin 2005

[3] "Preliminary Research on Natural Disasters in the Wei and Jin Period" Zhang Meili 2005

The text was created by the History University team, and the pictures are from the Internet and the copyright belongs to the original author

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