Can pet's blood save the owner's excessive blood loss?
"Until today, no one knows my blood type, because I have filled in red blood type in all the forms from childhood to adulthood!"
This is a joke about blood type. In fact, many people should have had similar experiences. After all, they didn't know much about blood type when they were young.
Now we usually say that we have type A blood or type B blood or other blood types, etc., and we know that there is a very rare blood called "panda blood".
But have you ever thought about the question: Do animals have the same blood type as humans? If so, can their blood be transfused to humans?
If you want to know whether animals have blood types like humans, you must know how blood types are defined, and what are the differences between different blood types.
Blood and blood type
We know that blood is composed of plasma and blood cells. Plasma usually contains various nutrients such as plasma protein and lipoprotein, as well as inorganic salts, oxygen, hormones, enzymes, etc. There are three types of blood cells, namely red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Mammalian blood has a coagulation mechanism. When a blood vessel ruptures, platelets will aggregate and block the rupture of the blood vessel. At this time, the water-soluble fibrin in the blood will coagulate into a blood clot. The remaining transparent liquid in the plasma is calledserum.
The classification of blood types is only related to red blood cells, based on whether there are certain heritable antigens on the surface of red blood cells and what antibodies can be produced in its serum.
For example, there are type A antigens on the surface of red blood cells, and the blood that can produce type B antibodies in the serum is type A blood; otherwise, it is type B blood.
The picture shows: ABO blood group system
People with blood type AB have both type A and type B antigens on the surface of red blood cells, and neither type A antibodies nor type B antibodies are produced in their serum.
People with blood type O have neither type A antigen nor type B antigen on the surface of red blood cells, and their serum produces antibodies to both A and B antigens.
We all know that the blood type must be matched when transfusing the patient. In fact, it is necessary to ensure that the patient's serum does not produce antibodies to the transfused blood.
The four blood types A, B, AB, O rely on type A antigen and type B antigen to interact with each other, and they together form the ABO blood group system.
Similar to this, the Rh blood group system is divided according to whether the red blood cell surface has Rh antigen. There are only two blood types in this blood group system. The Rh antigen on the surface of the red blood cell is called Rh positive, which is expressed as Rh+, and there is no Rh antigen.For Rh negative, it is expressed as Rh- ie panda blood. ABO blood group system and Rh blood group system are the most important blood group systems and the most related to blood transfusion. Generally, they are used in combination. For example, A blood type Rh positive is expressed asA+. In addition to the ABO blood type and Rh blood type, there are other types of blood type systems in humans, such as the P blood type system, the Bombay blood type system, and the Yonetianbao blood type system.
Does the animal have a blood type?
Since the blood type is only distinguished by the antigens on the surface of red blood cells and not determined by some genes unique to humans, then animals may also have blood types.
Actually, animals do have blood types. Although they don’t care about their blood types, we sometimes have to consider them when treating animals.
At present, our understanding of animal blood is mainly focused on domesticated animals such as dogs, cats, sheep, etc., because they are injured or sick, we are obligated to help.
For dogs, they have more than 8 antigens that can be attached to red blood cells, most of which are labeled as dog red blood cell antigen DEA, denoted as DAE1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Individuals in certain dog breeds usually have the same blood type. For example, 60% of Greyhounds belong to the DEA1.1 negative blood type, which is also the general blood type of dogs.
A new blood type has been discovered in Dalmatians-Dahl blood type. This blood type seems to be unique to them, and other dog breeds do not have it.
Cats may only contain two antigens: Type A and Type B different from humans. They do not have a common blood type, but most domestic cats have type A blood.
Moreover, it’s interesting that purebred cats usually belong to blood type B. Blood type AB may also be present in cats, but this is quite rare.
There are 8 main blood types in horses, of which 7 are A, C, D, K, P, Q, and U are internationally recognized, and the eighth is still under study.
Unlike humans, horses do not naturally produce antibodies against red blood cell antigens that they do not possess. Only when their blood is exposed to different blood in some way can an immune response occur.
It is worth mentioning that the RH antigen in our humans is also called rhesus monkey factor, which is exactly the same as the protein on the red blood cells of rhesus monkeys.
Can animal blood be transfused to human
The act of transfusing the blood of non-human animals to humans is called heterogeneous blood transfusion. In fact, heterogeneous blood transfusion has already been practiced in human society, mainly using lamb blood.
On June 15, 1667, two doctors in France performed the first recorded heterologous blood transfusion in human history. At that time, they introduced blood from the carotid artery of a sheep into the meridian of the inner elbow of a 15-year-old boy, The operation was a success in the end.
On June 24, the two men gave a similar blood transfusion to a Swedish nobleman. Before the blood transfusion, the patient lost the language function. After the blood transfusion, he started to speak with his mouth open.
After the operation, the Swede’s health continued to improve, but then his condition deteriorated again. The second blood transfusion was not successful, and the patient died.
The picture shows: the first cartoon of heterogeneous blood transfusion
In November of the same year, British doctor Richard also performed a blood transfusion operation. He successfully transfused the blood of a lamb to a 22-year-old man.
Although the technology at the time was not enough to judge the similarity of the blood types of sheep and people, these real examples did let people see the hope of heterogeneous blood transfusion.
We know that human blood reserves are insufficient, and scientists are also trying to get blood suitable for humans from other animals.
Some scientists have discovered that pig red blood cells pRBCs have very similar characteristics to human red blood cells.
These similarities include cell size and cell lifespan, and there is evidence that PRBCs can survive normally in the human body.
In addition, humans can genetically modify pigs to make their blood more compatible with humans. Using only 10% of their blood each time will not affect their health.
Therefore, the practice of regular blood sampling for pigs is feasible, no matter from which point of view, it is a major breakthrough in the scientific and medical circles.
To some extent, heterogeneous blood transfusion is a kind of "symbiotic relationship", which means that we humans need to consider the relationship between humans and animals more carefully.
There is actually an unpopular knowledge about blood type. Some data that may not be recognized by the mass media show that people with blood type O are more immune and have a lower risk of developing infectious diseases, followed by types B and AB, Type A is the highest.
Of course, there are many rumors about blood type and physical fitness. Maybe there is some connection between the two, but it will definitely not be very big.
If you want a better body, the only way is good living habits, plus regular exercise.
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