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2021-01-04 | Cold Weapon Research Institute Original |

Editor's note: The halberd is a weapon with Chinese characteristics. From the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the bronze halberd appeared in China. In the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States period, the halberd was widely used in car warfare and was one of the "five soldiers of car warfare". It was made of steel that appeared in the Han Dynasty.The pu character halberd was a widely popular standard weapon until the Three Kingdoms period. This unique Chinese weapon can be hooked, pecked, stab, and has a rich use of techniques. However, after the Han Dynasty, the halberd seems to have slowly evolved from peopleThere is a theory that the halberd is a weapon for vehicle warfare. After the Han Dynasty, the chariot was eliminated by the cavalry, so the halberd gradually disappeared. Is this really the case?

Four years of Xiangbang Lu Buweiji

"Shu Wen Jie Zi" records: "halberds, there are soldiers." Halberds are generally a long-handled pole with a tip that can be pierced, and then a bladed horizontal branch. Although there are many bronze halberds in Shang and Zhou DynastiesA split halberd head assembled with a spearhead and a ge. The four-year Xiangbang Lubuwei halberd unearthed in the pit of the terracotta warriors and horses in 2007 is a typical one consisting of a bronze ge, a spear, a wooden handle and a tail upset.With a total length of 2.87 meters, because the wooden handle is perishable, this halberd with handle is the only intact bronze halberd found in China.

In the Han Dynasty, the appearance of the iron halberd replaced the bronze halberd. This kind of iron halberd with a lighter weight and stronger head is generally called a pu-shaped halberd because its shape is similar to the word pu. In 1993, Yin Wenquan Town, Donghai County, Lianyungang CityThe "Arsenal of Yongshi Four-Year Armament Collection Book" unearthed from Tomb No. 6 of Wanhan Tomb contains a systematic record of the types and quantities of weapons and equipment in Donghai County's Arsenal in the fourth year of Emperor Yongshi of the Western Han Dynasty 13 BC.Among them, there are six thousand six hundred and thirty-four halberds. Compared with more than half a million crossbows and more than four hundred thousand beryllium a kind of long-bladed spear, the proportion of halberds is very small. From this recordIn the late Western Han Dynasty, the halberd was no longer a mainstream long weapon.

But the halberd has not been abandoned. "Three Kingdoms: Lu Bu Biography" records the deeds of Lu Buyuanmen shooting a halberd. At that time, there was no Fangtian painted halberd. The shape of Fangtian painted halberd did not appear until the Song Dynasty.At the same time, the halberd shooting at the gate also clearly recorded: "Nai Lingjun hopes to plant a halberd at the camp door, and Gu said: "The kings view the small branches of the halberd.Duel. "The cloth is a shot, with a halberd in the middle." The description of this twig can only be in the shape of a halberd. Fang Tian's painted halberd has only crescent blades and no twigs. The Book of the Later Han·Dong Zhuo also records: "Wang Yunnai and the scholar Sun Rui secretly expressed their affairs, and made Rui self-written edicts to give cloths, and made more than ten captain Li Su and cloth concentric warriors, pretending to be warriors in Beiyemen under the pretense of guards.No, I’m afraid to return it. Lu Bu persuaded him to enter, and then he started. Suddenly stabbed him with a halberd, and he couldn’t get into his arm, hurting his arm and driving. Gu Da yelled, "Where is Lu Bu?" Bu said: "There is an edict to ask the thief.Chen.' Zhuo Da cursed and said:'Yong dogs dare to be evil!' Bu replied with a spear stabbing Zhuo, and an interesting soldier cut him." Li Su also used a halberd. Not to mention that Dian Wei also used a double halberd. So many.The records in can illustrate that from the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Three Kingdoms period, the halberd was still a standard weapon in the army.

The halberd picture

But after that, it seems that there are fewer records of halberds. Many people even think that the halberd has evolved into a ceremonial guard after this, because the halberd is a symbol of status in the front of the Tang Dynasty. For example, "Old Tang Dynasty""Shu·Zhang Jian Biography" recorded: "Three grades or more made in the Tang Dynasty, the gate line is a halberd." However, the halberd as a ceremonial weapon did not appear in the Tang Dynasty, and there are related records in the Han Dynasty.The record: "The public is below two thousand stones, four people are riding officials, and the two county magistrates carry swords and hold halberds." The so-called halberds are lacquered and tied with silk.The halberd of the halberd. This kind of better-looking halberd has always been used as a guard of honor, but in the Han Dynasty, the guards of the ceremonies held the halberd. In the Tang Dynasty, it was changed to display the halberd in front of the door.

The widely spread argument is that the halberd is a weapon used by the chariot. Because there are records of the five soldiers of the chariot there is a halberd, so many people vowed to say that the halberd is a vehicle war weapon. When the chariot is eliminated by the cavalry, the halberd isEliminated. But this argument is not tenable at all, because the five soldiers of Che’s are specifically: "Ge, Pan, Halberd, Chief Spear, Yi Spear", but the five infantry soldiers only replaced the bow and arrow with the Yi Spear.A member of the five infantry soldiers. Not only that, the car battle mode in the Three Kingdoms period has been basically eliminated, but there are still many records of the use of halberds. Similarly, many cavalry mercenaries with halberds have been unearthed in the Han tombs, and the Han DynastyThere are also many pictures of cavalry fighting with a halberd in the stone relief, which proves that the cavalry also uses halberds.

Stone carvings of Han Dynasty portraits in Sunjia Village, Shandong

In fact, the halberd is more suitable for cavalry. The twigs can effectively prevent the cavalry's thorn from being too deep and making it difficult to draw out the weapon. At the same time, if the stab fails, you can hook it back and make it up again.The last blow. There is no situation where the cavalry is not easy to use with a halberd. Although some people speculate that the halberd’s horizontal branches cause weak armor penetration, this is obviously not accurate. The halberd was also widely used in the Han Dynasty.It is the beryllium with a pair of small horizontal branches, and the beryllium is the spear with the head like a dagger. The difference from the later popular 槊 is that the beryllium is a collared structure in which the stem is inserted into the rod, and the 槊 is a sleeve sleeve on the rod.At the same time, a considerable part of the scorpion has the same feelings as the structure of the sword guard to prevent it from being inserted too deep. Therefore, the front edge of the halberd, which is basically the same as the scorpion structure, will not appear worse.If necessary, you can lengthen the front edge to move the twigs back. After all, the sword and spearhead of the split bronze halberd are far away.

The halberd used by infantry is also very useful. Some people think that the pecking damage of the halberd is difficult to break against the armor, but in fact the role of the halberd is not only for pecking. The author holds the halberd when fighting weapons., Twigs can block the opponent’s weapon, whether it is a weapon that is directly hacked or a weapon that is directly pierced, you can block or poke it away with a twig. The technique of using a spear to call the opponent’s spear is to block and hold, which is the tip of the spearDraw a circle to call the opponent's straight spear. The bu-zi halberd can also be used to draw a circle with twigs to spread or diverge the opponent's straight weapon. This is a very convenient and easy-to-use technique. Especially in the faceWhen facing an opponent holding a shield, you can first bypass the shield and peck the opponent with a twig. If you do not hit the peck, you can go back to the hook, hook the shield and poke in. The halberd can also hook the opponent's leg or hand, and you can hook it.Disarm on the spot. Hooking a leg is a safe weapon for confrontation with no blade. It is as easy to hook the opponent. Once the enemy falls on the battlefield, it is very convenient for us to make up another blow. Who can not seize the opportunityTaking the opportunity to hit hard, will also give the opponent a chance to stand up? So it can be said that whether it is infantry, cavalry or chariot, there is nothing inappropriate to use a halberd.

Special statement

And the so-called Tang Dynasty halberd has become a guard of honour also has a counterexample, that is, the famous Xue Rengui, "Old Tang Book" records: "When the army attacked Andicheng, Gao Yanshou, Gao Huizhen rateTwo hundred and fifty thousand soldiers came to resist the battle. Taizong set up camp on the mountain. Taizong ordered all the generals to attack on all sides. Rengui relied on his bravery and wanted to perform extraordinary merits. He was in a different color, dressed in white, holding a halberd, and a bow at his waist.The thieves are invincible but go ahead.” Xue Rengui wore white clothes and rushed into the battle with a halberd. This proves that in the Tang Dynasty, it was not that the halberd had become a ceremonial weapon and was still on the battlefield.There is a halberd.

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