The universe is all-encompassing, we need to look at it scientifically

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Editor’s note: In most people’s impressions, the Southern Dynasty generally lacked cavalry, so they were often at a disadvantage in the war with the northern forces. This statement is indeed convincing, but the victory or defeat in the war is entirely attributed toThe lack and deficiency of a certain type of arms is also a kind of weaponism. Like voluntarism, this simple method of analysis is not desirable. The confrontation between the Northern and Southern Dynasties ended with the destruction of Nanchen by the Sui Dynasty.There are many reasons for this. In addition to the shortcomings of arms, from the perspective of military mobilization, the gradual erosion of the military system of the Southern Dynasty is also one of the important reasons. The formal military system of the Southern Dynasty is called the "general military system." This is a kind ofSoldiers and civilians each have a system of separation of soldiers from farmers. As the name suggests, the so-called "soldiers" means soldiers from generation to generation. Once they are incorporated into military households, not only will they serve as soldiers for life, but also their descendants will also have to serve the country.The military service. This kind of military system not only existed in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. Later, the military household system of the Yuan and Ming dynasties, and the Eight Banners system of the Qing Dynasty also had similar characteristics. Then why this system would lead to a rapid decline in combat effectivenessWoolen cloth?

The emergence of the world military system has a certain connection with several elite troops in the Three Kingdoms period of the Eastern Han Dynasty. It is generally believed that the large-scale promotion of the world military system in the Three Kingdoms period is related to Cao Cao. "Three Kingdoms" records that in 192 AD, Cao Cao was "accepted by yellow turbanThe army has killed 300,000 men and women, with more than a million men and women, and the elites are called Qingzhou soldiers.” This model of selecting elites as the army is consistent with the Sun Wu regime’s selection of the Shan Yue people, “the strong are the soldiers, and the leit ones make up for it.”The method of arranging households is similar. It can be seen that among the Yellow Turban soldiers who surrendered, except for those Qingzhou soldiers who were selected as soldiers, the remaining soldiers were divided into tenant households, civilian households or military households.

Different from the names of "Euphorber", "White Horse Yicong", and "Tiger Leopard Cavalry", only from the name analysis, it is actually difficult to know what kind of weapons the Qingzhou soldiers use to fight, and it is not even clear what they are.The infantry is still the cavalry. The records of the Qingzhou soldiers' combat methods in the history books are also vague, and the image of this mysterious army that we have formed today is mostly derived from the processing and secondary creation of later literary works. In fact, this one is from the Yellow Turban.The army selected by the army is not so much a special elite with specific tactics, as it is a corps with a fixed source of soldiers. There are not many records about this army in the "Three Kingdoms".However, from the perspective of time, this army has been in existence for at least 27 years from the establishment of the third year of Chuping to the disbandment of Cao Cao in the 24th year of Jian'an after the death.It took longer. You know, after Cao Cao’s death, this army "thinks that the world is going to be chaotic, and everyone beats drums without permission." Finally, as a last resort, Cao Pi "is just for a long time, telling him where he is."Eat", this made the mutiny that almost shook the military's mind invisible, and it can be seen that the Qingzhou soldiers at this time still retained extremely strong combat capabilities. This is actually the "father to die and son to follow" and "brother and brother" in the world military system.System characteristics.

Cao Cao, who once lamented "One hundred people and one hundred legacy", also slaughtered the city many times

It should be noted that although the establishment of the Shijun system is related to Qingzhou soldiers, it dates back to the founding period of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Emperor Guangwu of Han Dynasty Liu Xiu has already used this military system for generations. The Cold Weapon Research Institute used toI published an article titled "Youzhou Tuqi, known as the best soldier in the world in the early Eastern Han Dynasty. Why did he mysteriously disappear after helping Liu Xiu lay down the country?", in which it was mentioned that Youzhou Tuqi was heavily transferred after the founding of the Eastern Han Dynasty.To Gyeonggi to supplement the North Army's fifth camp and Liyang camp. Once these knights are selected as the imperial army, in addition to himself, his family members and relatives will also accompany him to Gyeonggi. There are three reasons, one, this is the Emperor Guangwu of the HanThese are the rewards for the subordinates who died in the War of Unification. Second, the black belly said that sending them and their relatives to Beijing can also facilitate the control of these soldiers and increase their loyalty. Finally, the nephews and nephews of these soldiersGenerations, after a generation of officers gradually get old, they can also take over from their parents. This is also regarded as the prototype of the military system. From the perspective of the time, this method of recruiting soldiers from the second generation of the army can be said to be a "win-win situation"."For these forbidden troops, their nephews can get better treatment and future through this way. For the rulers, most of the second generations of the army that grew from the frontier have received relatively complete military education.Especially for combat skills such as equestrianism and riding and shooting. Relying on the advantage of family education, they also became a rare source of high-quality troops in the Han Dynasty. In the six years of Jianwu, Liu Xiu "stopped the world’s light trucks,After the knights, talented officers, bunkers, and military officials returned to the civilian corps, only to behave better," the Eastern Han Dynasty became more dependent on these high-quality soldiers.

However, the shortcomings of the world military system are also obvious. Take the Forbidden Army assault cavalry as an example. Most of their superb skills are derived from the tempering of the border beacon. Once they are moved to the interior, their combat effectiveness will decline sharply within three generations.As a result, the Eastern Han Dynasty had to frequently mobilize Youzhou Tuqie to supplement the imperial army. Of course, the situation was a little different from the Three Kingdoms to the Northern and Southern Dynasties. Under the state of frequent warfare, the soldiers of the world could not talk about "not knowing the swordsman", and there was no such thing.What's the saying that “perfect for a long time”, but the problem is that from the Yellow Turban Uprising to the separation of the heroes to the three kingdoms, due to the continuation of the turmoil, the conscription system in the Han Dynasty began to be severely damaged. A large number of self-cultivation groups began to be affected by the war.As a last resort, some farmers chose to rely on local tycoons and became “hidden households” without paying taxes and corvee. The sharp decline in population during the Three Kingdoms period that we often hear was not entirely due to the death of war.The emergence of the hermit wave is also one of the reasons. The overlap of these factors and the rise of the world military system began. However, from the end of the Han Dynasty to the Southern and Northern Dynasties, this process has gradually evolved, because the original conscription system was difficult.In order to cope with the increasingly tense situation, these warlords are naturally unwilling to easily release soldiers and return to their fields. The same is true for soldiers.In the troubled times where there are no pedestrians in the market, serving as a soldier is not only work, but also a way to save your life.

In this chaotic state, the world military system began to be favored by the separatist forces. Compared with the limited-time conscription system during the Han Dynasty, the world military system has a stronger personal attachment nature. Take the Qingzhou soldiers as an example.When Cao Cao was alive, he was born and died, serving as a dog, but when he died, he immediately prepared to go away. This kind of loyalty to someone was also very common in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. In fact, due to the increasing personal attachmentIntensified, the so-called "father and son, brother and brother" is no longer only for soldiers, generals also have this development trend in the control of sergeants. For example, Lu Su of Wu in the Three Kingdoms period had a lot of support during his lifetime.After their death, these private soldiers were inherited by their sons Lu Shu and Lu Mu successively in a similar way to inheritance. This is because the custom system that has been implemented since the Cao Wei period broke the state-given Tuntian Kehe Ministry.Due to the identity boundary between Qujian, some officials even recruited their own private soldiers from the local area. In this way, although the local military strength has been strengthened, it depends on the officials themselves for the supply of food and weapons, and these military forces have also been marked.Has a strong personal mark.

In this period, in addition to generals and ministers, aristocratic clans also cultivated their own power in this way. Due to the influence of land annexation activities, these aristocratic clans not only did not decline because of this, but started instead.Take control of an armed force that is not inferior to the official. If it is only a change in the way of enlistment, then the difference between the military system and the enlistment system will not be so obvious, but the problem is that the war from the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Sui and Tang Dynasties for nearly three hundred years,This gradually alienated the military system, which was originally just a matter of urgency. At the beginning, most of the soldiers enlisted as soldiers were land-lost peasants who had nowhere to seek their lives in troubled times. They were displaced because of the war. Once they were recruited as soldiers, the treatment was fair.It’s fair, not only can they get their own soldiers, but their family members can also get asylum. For example, the Cao Wei regime, although it is stipulated that military members should be used to prevent military rebellion, but on the other hand, these military members can at least receive the official protection of the Cao Wei regime.. In the Three Kingdoms era during the killing of Yingcheng and Yingye, how could ordinary people dare to have too many demands? However, when it comes to serving as a soldier, starting from the Three Kingdoms, the three great forces of Wei, Shu and Wu began to "scroll" at the same place.stand up.

Although people often say "involvement" nowadays, it is important to know that workers can still have the freedom to leave if they are embarrassed. However, for those soldiers who have strong personal attachments, they want to escape.In addition to relying on the state's rewards, the military status has only one way to defect. In the case of unable to leave the system, once these military households "roll up", it is really terrible. Xingping first year, Cao Wei’s famous general Xia Houchun served as Chen Liu and Jiyin prefect. In order to cope with the sudden locust plague and drought in the territory, he “had his own arrogance and led the soldiers to persuade him to plant rice.” The bosses all carried their hoes, and it was difficult for everyone to stand behind and shout.Big brother 66. Since then, the sergeants farming battle has gradually changed from a stopgap measure to a normal state. They not only need to undertake military tasks, but also to promote farming in their leisure time. Later, in order to increase food income, The state even increased the original tax share. For sergeants who originally leased official cattle farmland, the state took 60% of the tax, and the tax on farmland with their own cattle was even less, and only paid 50%. To the Jin Dynasty, This policy has been "slightly" modified: Those who own cattle need to pay 70%, and those who rent cattle farmland can only keep 20%, compared with the original 40%, the income is directly cut in half.

This is only an economic issue. In terms of social status, the status of military households under the world military system is worsening day by day. In order to expand the source of troops, the various forces have begun to constantly explore their own lower limits. What they did at the beginningIt is more subtle, only exempting some slaves from slavery in a form similar to rewards, and then classifying these people as military households. For example, the Emperor Sima Rui of the Jin and Yuan Dynasty once "save the beloved in Zhongzhou from suffering as children in the counties of Yangzhou."Prepare for conscription"; or, like the Shuhan and Dongwu, recruit soldiers from the ethnic minorities in the south to become naturalized. Later, because of the inexhaustible selection, the ruler simply forced the criminals to join the military. This does not consider the composition of the troops, but only the number.The conscription method of the theory has brought extremely bad consequences. The soldiers who had been known as professional soldiers for generations were mixed with slaves and criminals. These new soldiers had no knowledge of combat, but were forced into the battlefield.Needless to say, the morale is low. More importantly, the social status of the original military households has also become increasingly low. During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, when the style of the family was most popular, military households had been reduced to the lowest class in society. For example,This way of serving as a soldier for sin is called a "soldier". It can be seen that in the eyes of the world, being cast as a soldier is already a punishment.

Due to the declining status of military households, military households escaped from their registrations from time to time. The so-called "supplement method" even appeared in the Liu Song period: "Song Shu" stated that "suffering a soldier with crimes, where there are more than ten"In theory, only one of these more than ten crimes can be committed to military status. However, in the process of implementation, in order to be able to quickly replenish troops, ordinary people even commit some clearly unrelated to the supplementary law.Minor crimes will also be put into military status. Not only that, according to the regulations at the time, if a person breaks the law, his family members will also be changed to military status. It can be seen that the ruler at that time has reached the level of madness in order to expand the army.At this time, the original military system of voluntary household registration has been completely changed, and it has become a means of compulsory conscription for all forces to expand the army's source. However, the social status is gradually lowered and the military households who are unable to survive are naturally unwilling to sit and wait for death.The records of criticizing and fleeing are the same. For example, "Southern History" recorded a very typical saying: "There may be death on the battlefield, and the name is rebellious, under the supervision of the talisman.If a family rebels, they will take the same nationality. If the same nationality is rebellious, they will take Biwu. If a Biwu rebels, then the village will be taken. If one person commits a crime, the village will be empty."People of the same nationality and the same village were afraid of remedial tactics, and they fled together in the whole village. Just imagine, how can an army in this state have the slightest combat effectiveness?

Actually, not only did the Southern Dynasty suffer from a series of problems caused by the collapse of the military system, the rulers of the North also suffered from a similar system. Taking the Northern Wei Dynasty as an example, the soldiers of the six towns are also towns that have served as soldiers for generations.Min, since Emperor Wen of the Northern Wei Dynasty moved his capital, his status has declined drastically because he is far away from Gyeonggi, so that the six towns that severely damaged the Northern Wei Dynasty broke out. This also led to the birth of the Eastern and Western Wei. However, it was lined with aristocrats and aristocrats in the Southern Dynasty.Shen Ke’s situation was different. Since Emperor Xiaowen’s reforms in the Northern Wei Dynasty, the triad system has gradually replaced the original superintendent system, and the emergence of the equal-field system has also made the refugees who had already escaped their registration and self-protection willing to reorganize their households.Naturalization. The predecessors planted trees and descended to take advantage of the cool. The establishment and implementation of these systems enabled the Western Wei Yuwentai to fully implement the military system, which allowed the Western Wei, the Northern Zhou and the Sui Dynasty to far exceed the military mobilization of the Southern Dynasty.Respond to the increasingly brutal merger war. This huge gap in national power is the reason why the Northern and Southern Dynasties ended in the end.

References:

[1]Lin Zhiman. Military system of past dynasties. Shenyang: Liaohai Publishing House, 2010

[2]Huang Wentao. On the status and realization mechanism of soldiers in the world military system. Nanjing Political Journal, March 2007


Aristocratic families in the Wei and Jin dynasties

[3]Li Yanyan. Wei, Jin and Southern Dynasties and its influence on state power. Jiangxi: Jiangxi Normal University, 2012.

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